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თქვენი ღონისძიების ჩასატარებლად ეროვნულ სამეცნიერო ბიბლიოთკაში, გთხოვთ, შეავსოთ სააპლიკაციო ფორმა და გადგმოგზავნოთ ელექტრონულ მისამართზე: infopr@sciencelib.ge

მსოფლიო სამეცნიერო სიახლეები

Landwirtschaft und Klimaschutz: Darf's ein Schnitzel weniger sein?

SPIEGEL ONLINE - Wissenschaft - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:49
Mit einer neuen Strategie will die deutsche Landwirtschaft klimafreundlicher werden. Denn viel ist bisher noch nicht passiert, klagen Umweltschützer. Wichtig sind nicht zuletzt die Konsumenten, also wir alle. Und unser Hunger auf Fleisch.

„Racial Profiling“: Geht die Polizei gegen Migranten härter vor?

Wissen - FAZ.NET Frankfurter Algemeine - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:45
Kritiker sagen über die Polizei, sie stelle Migranten unter Generalverdacht. Doch die Beamten erkennen in „Racial Profiling“ kein Problem, es finde nicht statt – Wissenschaftler widersprechen vehement.

Krypton : le trailer officiel explicite la série DC de Syfy

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:40
Afin de sauver le futur et notamment l'existence de Superman, c'est bien Adam Strange qui va voyager dans le temps dans Krypton pour aiguiller Seg-El.

Grocery store program pushed farmers to go green

Futurity.org - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:33

A program of one of the five largest supermarket chains in South Africa, drove increased adoption of environmental practices at the farm level, a new study of the store’s supply chain indicates.

The study is one of the first analyses of a company-led sustainability program in the food and agriculture space.

Agriculture environmental is one of the largest global polluters, driving deforestation and contributing an estimated 30 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions.

farm in South Africa Leafy green vegetables in a growing facility in Gauteng Province, South Africa. (Credit: Katherine Smit/Stanford)

“If indeed these company-led policies are effective and able to transform their entire supply chains, then they can potentially transform land-use practices worldwide and have a very positive impact on the environment,” says study coauthor Eric Lambin, professor in the School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences at Stanford University.

“Having this kind of evaluation done by independent researchers increases the confidence of the public in these private programs,” Lambin says.

Getting access

The biggest challenge in evaluating the effects of food store sustainability programs has been gaining access to stores’ private data. For this reason, researchers have focused on certifications led by nongovernmental organizations and multi-stakeholder standards that offer open access to their data, such as FairTrade and the Rainforest Alliance.

“The real question here is, ‘Will companies’ sustainability efforts slow if they don’t have an NGO checking in on them? Will they be actually driving change or is it just greenwashing?'” says lead author Tannis Thorlakson, a doctoral student in Stanford Earth’s Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER).

“We’re seeing big shifts in farming practices, which is really exciting.”

Several US-based food retailers with company-led sustainability programs refused to grant Thorlakson access to their data. Eventually, the high-end South African grocery and clothing chain Woolworths gave access.

“It’s really hard to evaluate a company’s sustainability program because you need to know exactly who their suppliers are and how the program works,” Thorlakson says. “Woolworths provided a unique opportunity because they agreed to total academic freedom to evaluate their program and publish results.”

The researchers found that Woolworths’ large-scale fruit, vegetable, and flower growers use more environmental management practices when compared both over time and with a random sample of farms certified by the food industry’s global environmental standard for farm management, known as GLOBALG.A.P. The world’s most widely implemented farm certification program, GLOBALG.A.P. enforces definitive environmental rules for farmers and performs annual third-party audits of production.

Changing the supply chain

Woolworths’ Farming for the Future program combines annual auditor feedback with the individual needs of farmers, rather than imposing definitive rules. Farms are evaluated on sustainability criteria each year, including soil management, water use, biodiversity, waste disposal, pest management, carbon footprint, and environmental laws. The company also employs auditors trained as agronomists, soil scientists, or environmental scientists.

“According to one farmer, other auditors will drive into the farm and say, ‘Nice trees you’ve got there,'” Thorlakson says. “‘But when the Farming for the Future auditor comes in, they drive up and they say, ‘Tell me about those trees—those are an invasive species and they’re probably affecting your water table. Why aren’t we working on a management plan to deal with those?'”

How treating dirt well could fight climate change

In addition to its flexible model and relationships with its auditors—whom Woolworths finances—researchers believe the program’s success can be attributed to its growers being part of a direct supply chain. Other large grocery chains often have intermediate suppliers between them and the actual farmers.

“The auditors are building relationships and helping farmers improve their practices,” Thorlakson says. “For example, conventional farmers are now using cover crops, which is a really hard practice to get farmers to take up but which creates long-term environmental benefits. We’re seeing big shifts in farming practices, which is really exciting.”

The researchers conducted empirical analyses of the company’s farming practices since the program was formally launched in 2009 to understand changes over time, using more than 950 third-party audits of 228 large-scale farmers.

The analysis also included a comparison of Woolworths and a random sample of similar GlobalG.A.P. certified farms. Thorlakson began fieldwork in 2015, when she spent 3 months embedded in Woolworths’ sustainability team in Cape Town, South Africa.

Thorlakson completed more than 90 qualitative interviews with auditors and farmers in October 2016, which mainly showed that farmers value long-term partnerships with their buyers, she says. Researchers hope this study will encourage other companies to rethink their supply chain sustainability programs to incorporate a more partnership-based approach to working with their farmers.

“I hope that more companies will see the value of letting researchers evaluate their program and publish the results—if we find that a program is not that effective, we can also identify why and see what’s wrong, and how it can be improved and what can be corrected,” Lambin says. “The more of these studies we are able to do, the better the scientific community will become at identifying the reasons for success.”

Why farmers may want to keep, not kill, weeds

The researchers report their findings in the journal Global Environmental Change.

Jens Hainmueller, an associate professor in the political science department, is a coauthor on the study.

The study’s funding came from the Stanford Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources’ Victoria and David Rogers Fund, the George Rudolf Fellowship Fund, and the Stanford Dean A. McGee Fund. A National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship also supported the research.

Source: Stanford University

The post Grocery store program pushed farmers to go green appeared first on Futurity.

Carphone Warehouse fined £400,000 over data breach

BBC Technology - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:31
The regulator says its £400,000 fine follows the discovery of rudimentary mistakes by the retailer.
კატეგორიები: ახალი ტექნოლოგიები

24 hidden iPhone settings you should know about

iPhone X DIY

Dig deeper into iOS.

Want to customize your iPhone experience? From hacking the flashlight's brightness to blocking web trackers, here are 24 hidden iOS settings to play with.

Housing pioneer Neave Brown dies aged 88

dezeen - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:28

Acclaimed architect Neave Brown, a "pioneer of quality public housing", has died following a battle with cancer. Read more

Soldes : « On peut passer de la mode jetable à un système plus durable »

LeMonde - bio, environ, sciences - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:27
Alors que les soldes débutent mercredi, Erwan Autret, ingénieur de l’Ademe, revient sur l’impact dévastateur de l’industrie de la mode sur l’environnement.

უბედური შემთხვევა იტალიაში - საქართველოს მოქალაქე მატარებელმა გაიტანა

იტალიური სააგენტოების ცნობით, მამაკაცი ღამით ლიანდაგებზე მიდიოდა.

ქუთაისში მშენებარე ობიექტიდან მამაკაცი გადმოვარდა და გარდაიცვალა

Ambebi.Ge - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:11
ერთ-ერთი ვერსიით, მამაკაცს გულის შეტევა დაემართა

Belästigungsvorwürfe gegen James Franco: Backlash nach den Golden Globes

SPIEGEL ONLINE - Kultur - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:10
Eben wurde James Franco noch bei den Golden Globes gefeiert. Nun machen dem Schauspieler alte, aber auch neue Vorwürfe der Nötigung zu schaffen. Die "New York Times" sagte bereits eine Veranstaltung mit ihm ab.

Failles Spectre et Meltdown : Microsoft parle de ses patchs et de leurs conséquences

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:00
Presque toutes les versions de Windows sont aujourd'hui partiellement protégées contre Spectre et Meltdown, mais cela a un prix pour certains utilisateurs.

Can an Arrow Fired Straight Up Fall Fast Enough to Kill You?

Wired Science - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:00
If you shoot an arrow straight up into the air, could it fall down fast enough to kill you? Physics can tell.
კატეგორიები:

People Don't Trust AI--Here's How We Can Change That

Scientific American - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:00
Start by understanding why people are so reluctant to trust AI in the first place -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

People Don't Trust AI--Here's How We Can Change That

TechRSS SCIAM - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 18:00
Start by understanding why people are so reluctant to trust AI in the first place -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
კატეგორიები: ახალი ტექნოლოგიები

Meltdown fix can make some machines slower - Intel

BBC Technology - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 17:56
The patch for a security hole in its chips may slow down machines but the impact will be limited, it says.
კატეგორიები: ახალი ტექნოლოგიები

Soldes : un PC portable gaming 15,6 pouces MSI à moins de 1300 euros

Yahoo! Actualités: Les titres Sciences - ოთხ, 10/01/2018 - 17:56
Pour les soldes d'hiver, Rue du Commerce propose le PC portable MSI GE62 Apache Pro à 1286,99 euros.
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