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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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Syndicate content Civil.ge:
news. nuance. context.
Updated: 5 hours 25 min ago

Wess Mitchell: Dangers to Ukraine and Georgia Direct and Existential

Sat, 10/20/2018 - 15:12

Wess Mitchell, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, was quoted while speaking at the Atlantic Council on October 18 that it is important to see the success of Georgia and Ukraine “as independent, democratic entities,” and that U.S. has “a very deep stake in that.”

“First and foremost, we have to nurture the aspirations for democracy in the institutions that are growing in these counties and see the success of the reform agenda, because if we can’t succeed in that, fine, I think we lose overall,” he said.

The U.S. Assistant Secretary of State spoke at the Atlantic Council’s event Championing the Frontlines of Freedom: Erasing the “Grey Zone,” stressing that U.S. will respect “the national independence and sovereignty” of its allies.

“As Secretary [Mike] Pompeo has made clear, we stand by Ukraine and Georgia, a fact that is demonstrated by the aid and arms we have made available to these states. As we have in past decades, America continues to help those who help themselves in the struggle for freedom,” he said.

Mitchell then spoke of “today’s geopolitical competition” in Central and Eastern Europe where “America’s rivals are expanding their political, military, and commercial influence,” with Russia remaining as “a military factor” in the region, “following the invasions of Georgia and Ukraine.”

He believes, “the dangers to Ukraine and Georgia are direct and existential, comprising both military threats to territorial integrity and sovereignty, and efforts to unravel the democratic institutions that their citizens are attempting to build.”

Mitchell reiterated that U.S. sees Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia as part of Georgia, and that “there will not be a doorway to return the business as usual with Russia and its relations with the West” until it fulfils its international commitments.

He also emphasized that NATO remains committed to Georgia’s future in the Alliance, but “that process in not something that happens overnight.”

Police Finds Missing Azerbaijani Teen

Sat, 10/20/2018 - 14:47

An 17-year-old ethnic Azerbaijani girl who was reportedly forcefully abducted from her house in village Lambalo in Georgia’s eastern Kakheti region on October 12, was found in village Jandari in the neighboring Kvemo Kartli region six days from her disappearance.

The Interior Ministry reported on October 19 that the teen was questioned in presence of a psychologist and a social worker, and that she denied any form of violence against her or that she was forced into marriage.

According to the Ministry, the girl had known the alleged kidnapper for months and that the two decided to get married without their families’ consent. The police said the girl was placed in a shelter.

Vladimir Putin Speaks Saakashvili, “Lugar Lab”

Fri, 10/19/2018 - 16:05

Russian President Vladimir Putin said on October 18 at an annual meeting of the Valdai Discussion Club, that current Ukrainian leaders are pursuing “anti-state and anti-people policy,” like Georgia’s ex-President Mikheil Saakashili did “by attacking South Ossetia.”

“It was exactly because of these criminal actions that Georgia lost significant [parts] of its territory, exactly as a result of Saakashvili’s actions,” Putin underscored in his remarks, adding that it would be “regretful” if Ukrainian leaders “followed his footsteps.”

The Russian President made the statements in the plenary session of the 15th annual meeting of the Valdai Discussion Club, a Moscow-based think-tank, held on October 15-18 in Sochi. The event brought together some 130 experts from 33 countries.

Putin also commented on Russia’s recent bio-warfare allegations against the Georgian Healthcare Ministry’s Richard Lugar Center for Public Health Research, a Tbilisi-based biological research facility, established with the U.S. support and funding.

The Russian President said he “will not judge” how accurate ex-Security Minister Igor Giorgadze’s claims are,” but “it obviously raises concerns” for Moscow. “If these works (on biological weapons production) are indeed being carried out, it is very dangerous,” Putin said.

Georgia’s Healthcare Minister Davit Sergeenko responded to Putin’s remarks on October 19, saying the authorities will address the World Health Organization to dispatch an official mission, including with participation of Russian experts, for a detailed study of the facility.

For background, we recommend our Q&A on Russia’s “Lugar Lab” Information Offensive.

Presidential Administration Slams Government for ‘Disregard of Constitution’

Fri, 10/19/2018 - 15:00

President Giorgi Margvelashvili’s administration has slammed the Government of Georgia for “disregard of the constitution,” and its attempts to “distance and sidestep” from “grave” problems persisting in the country.

The accusations follow the Government’s decision to snub President Margvelashvili’s request for a cabinet sitting over the recently-released covert recordings, which implicate senior officials in case-fixing and other allegations.

The President addressed the cabinet of ministers with this request in a press briefing on October 16, asking to hold a meeting with his participation and deliberate on “effective functioning of state institutions and protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms.”

A corresponding letter, signed by the President’s Parliamentary Secretary, Ana Natsvlishvili, and addressed to the head of the Government administration, Kakha Kakhishvili, was submitted to Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze’s office also on October 16.

The PM’s office responded to the appeal a day later, with Bakhtadze’s Parliamentary Secretary, Natia Mikeladze, saying they were ready to consider the request, provided that the letter was signed personally by President Margvelashvili “in line with procedural rules.”

“According to the Constitution, the President, personally, is entitled to address the Government; in this case, the letter was submitted by the President’s parliamentary secretary to the head of government administration and this contradicts the legal procedures,” she stated.

Ana Natsvlishvili, President Margvelashvili’s parliamentary secretary, said such interpretation of the constitution was “incompetent.”

“That the President has addressed the Prime Minister was seen by the entire country; unfortunately, in response, we saw the government’s attempt to disregard the constitution, and in this very grave situation, step aside and avoid responsibility,” Natsvlishvili noted.

The presidential administration told Civil.Ge on October 18 that President Margvelashvili will not file a repeat request.

  • This is the third time President Margvelashvili has asked the government to hold a session with his participation. In November 2014, he called for a meeting to discuss foreign policy-related issues, while in October 2015 he requested a sitting over energy security. Both requests were ignored by the government.
  • According to the Constitution of Georgia, the President is entitled to request “particular matters” to be discussed at Government sittings and participate in the discussion. In the new constitution, which is to enter into force upon new President’s inauguration, the President will no longer be able to enjoy this right.

GDDG Poll Gives Zurabishvili First Round Victory

Fri, 10/19/2018 - 13:42

As the ruling party presented its own poll results favoring its own candidate yesterday, the divergence in public opinion poll results came sharply into focus, drawing attention to the use of polling in electioneering.

GDDG “internal” Poll

The ruling party-endorsed candidate, Salome Zurabishvili, is set to win the October 28 presidential elections in the first round, according to the opinion poll commissioned by the ruling Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia (GDDG).

The opinion poll was conducted by Psycho Project, a Tbilisi-based polling and marketing company, and was fielded on October 9-17 through nationwide face-to-face interviews (excluding the occupied territories), with 3,000 respondents and an average margin of error plus, minus 2.5%. Psycho Project is run by Zurab Bigvava, a pollster and a political commentator closely affiliated with GDDG leader and ex-PM Bidzina Ivanishvili.

According to MP Mamuka Mdinaradze, who presented the results at party headquarters on October 18, asked who they would vote for if elections were held today, 27% of all interviewed respondents said they would vote for Zurabishvili, followed by Grigol Vashadze and Davit Bakradze with 10% and 9%, respectively. Other candidates have 6% combined.

When these results are “weighed”, the GDDG lawmaker reported, the figures stand accordingly: Salome Zurabishvili – 53%; Grigol Vashadze – 19%; Davit Bakradze – 17%; others – 11%.

Mdinaradze suggests two conclusions from the results: that Salome Zurabishvili will gain an outright victory in the first round, and that “both branches of the United National Movement – the UNM and the European Georgia candidates have equal chances for obtaining the second place (Editor’s note: European Georgia spilt from the UNM in early 2017).”

The lawmaker said the survey results also demonstrated that UNM’s “staged performances,” and its “blame-shifting” campaign ahead of the presidential polls, “was doomed to fail.”

“As it seems, the United National Movement is well aware of the real political picture in the country and is trying to radicalize the processes, to present the reality alternatively as in the past, and constantly refer to a revolutionary scenario,” MP Mdinaradze quipped.

Mdinaradze then stressed, the fact that the two candidates, “whose political force has been involved in human rights abuses, rape, business racketeering, surrendering Georgia’s two historical provinces to Russia and many other grave and systemic crimes,” may obtain 36% of the votes, “will not contribute to Georgia’s democratic advancement.”

Previous polls

This is the fourth opinion poll released ahead of the October 28 presidential elections.

In the European Georgia-commissioned survey (fielded on September 15-22), asked who they would vote in presidential elections, 13.2% of interviewees responded Davit Bakradze, followed by Grigol Vashadze and Salome Zurabishvili with 13% and 10.2%, respectively.

According to the Rustavi 2 TV-commissioned opinion poll (fielded on September 25-October 4), the percentage of support of UNM’s Grigol Vashadze stands at 26%; followed by Salome Zurabishvili – 14%; Davit Bakradze – 12%; Shalva Natelashvili – 7%.

In the opinion survey, commissioned by the National Democratic Institute and carried out from June 23 to July 8, asked who they would vote for if elections were held tomorrow, 14% of likely voters named a ruling party candidate; 12% – UNM nominee; and 7% – Davit Bakradze.

Penitentiary Service Denies Reports that Subeliani was Beaten

Fri, 10/19/2018 - 11:52

The Special Penitentiary Service, an agency in charge of the country’s prison facilities, has denied reports that Mirza Subeliani, a former Prosecution Office official, who has implicated senior Georgian Dream officials in case-fixing and other criminal offenses, was beaten.

Reports that Subeliani was physically assaulted emerged late on October 18. The news first appeared in Facebook, and was later picked up by major television and online outlets.

The Penitentiary Service issued a brief statement in response to the allegations, rejecting the reports “categorically.” The agency also said the inmate “is under 24-hour visual surveillance,” and that it would authorize the lawyer’s “immediate visit” to Subeliani’s prison cell.

Mirza Subeliani denied these reports as well, according to Natia Kuprashvili, a representative of the Public Defender’s Office, who visited the inmate late-night yesterday.

Kuprashvili said the man had signs of injuries, which, according to Subeliani, were developed on October 15, when he attempted suicide. “He has minor bruises on both legs, on the elbow and the neck,” she noted.

Natia Kuprashvili added that Subeliani’s account was also confirmed by the medical logbook. “The last record on Subeliani was registered on October 15, when he attempted suicide, and the injuries recorded in it entirely match all the injuries showed by Subeliani to me.”

GDDG Politicians Say Opposition Wants to ‘Destabilize’ Elections

Thu, 10/18/2018 - 18:06

The ruling Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia (GDDG) party politicians claim the opposition wants to “destabilize” the situation ahead of the October 28 presidential elections.

The authorities stress the recently released recordings, which implicate senior GDDG in case-fixing and other offenses, are “provocations” plotted by the United National Movement (UNM).

Speaking to reporters on October 18, Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze said opposition wants to cause “dissonance” before the upcoming elections, and “create certain expectations that the polls won’t be conducted in a free and peaceful manner.”

“They should not have any illusions about that; the public understands full well where the line lies between the reality and [the opposition’s] mysticism,” Prime Minister Bakhtadze noted, adding that the opposition has also been conducting a campaign of “personal attacks and insults.”

PM Bakhtadze spoke briefly on Mirza Subeliani’s allegations as well, saying “as it seems, most of them are [mere] illusions.”

Interior Minister: have “detailed” information on all the plots

Interior Minister Giorgi Gakharia echoed the message in his press remarks, telling reporters that the authorities have “detailed” information on “all the plans that were being plotted for destabilization and provocations.”

“The Ministry, together with the State Security Service, has all of that exposed and detailed at all levels, including who was planning what and when it was being planned; these [plans] will not materialize and the elections will be held in absolutely peaceful and safe environment,” he noted.

Gakharia touched upon the case-fixing tapes briefly, but did not elaborate on the substance of accusations.

He said: “the Interior Ministry is an absolutely neural political institution; today, I have no right and no desire to speak of the issue in detail because we are in a pre-election context… all of the questions will be addressed both legally and politically, once the Interior Ministry holds the elections in a peaceful and safe environment.”

Tbilisi Mayor: attempts to ‘radicalize’ pre-election environment will fail

Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze commented on the matter on October 17, saying the United National Movement and Rustavi 2 TV, “UNM’s partisan outlet,” have been trying “to fuel up tensions,” and “radicalize” the pre-election environment.

Tbilisi Mayor said the opposition has been doing this through “doctored tapes,” “propaganda,” and made-up topics,” hoping it would prompt street protests. “No one will be allowed to trigger unrest in the country,” Kaladze noted.

He then said about month ago UNM had asked the Tbilisi municipality government for a permission to hold large-scale rallies on Tbilisi’s Freedom Square and Rustaveli Avenue on October 19-21. Kaladze stressed this also was part of UNM’s attempts to trigger turmoil.

The elections will take place on October 28. This will be the last time that the head of state will be elected through direct ballot. According to the new constitution, which will enter into force upon new president’s inauguration, the heads of state will be elected by a 300-member Electoral College for a term of five years starting from 2024.

For the extended background, follow our Weekly Elections Digest or the 2018 Presidential Elections Tag.

U.S. Gifts Two Patrol Boats to Georgia

Thu, 10/18/2018 - 16:58

Georgia’s border guards received two Island-class patrol boats from the United States at a special ceremony in Georgia’s Black Sea port of Poti on October 18. The vessels will strengthen the country’s Coast Guard fleet and maritime security of its borders, officials say.

According to Chargé d’affaires of the U.S. Embassy Elizabeth Rood, Georgia received Staten Island and Jefferson Island, now re-baptized as Ochamchire and Dioskuria, respectively, as a result of “long-term U.S.-Georgia strategic partnership.”

Rood said, the Georgian crew was trained by the U.S. Coast Guard in Baltimore, Maryland, and hoped the new boats would help the country become “a reliable partner for NATO in joint naval operations,” as well as expand its ties with other partners in the region.

“We thank Georgia for its efforts in improving the Black Sea security,” the Chargé d’affaires of the U.S. Embassy said, noting that with its “difficult neighborhood” and occupied territories, illegal trade control is a challenge for the country.

Georgian Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze said at the ceremony that by transferring the boats to Georgia, U.S. demonstrated its “unwavering support” for security and stability in the country and in the Black Sea region as a whole.

Noting that U.S.-Georgia cooperation and partnership “has never been on such high level,” Bakhtadze said “the Black Sea will play a decisive role in the architecture of the global security.”

According to the U.S. Coast guard, 110 ft (34 m) Island-class patrol boats are modified versions of a well-regarded British-designed patrol boat, with excellent range and seakeeping capabilities. Both of the boats are fully equipped with advanced navigation and communication systems.

According to U.S. Embassy the patrol boats will make the country “a stronger bulwark against regional and transnational threats,” reducing the response time “to investigate and interdict the potential transport of illicit goods, the smuggling of weapons of mass destruction components, or other illegal activities being carried out in the surrounding waters.”

Subeliani Tapes Scandal: A Summary

Thu, 10/18/2018 - 02:54

Series of recordings made in prison and involving the former Prosecution Office official, Mirza Subeliani, is developing into a major scandal, affecting the ongoing Presidential campaign, but also bringing into focus what seem to series of flaws in governance by the ruling Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia (GDDG).

Below is the summary of the developments so far.

What are these tapes?

The audio tapes represent apparently covert recordings of conversations of inmate Mirza Subeliani with GDDG MP Viktor Japaridze. Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze has authorized MP Japaridze to visit Subeliani on July 6, July 20, September 10, October 11 and October 14, 2018, according to the copies of permissions obtained by Liberali web magazine.

Who has aired the tapes, and which ones?

Rustavi 2 TV, a national broadcaster leaning strongly towards the United National Movement (UNM), a former ruling party and GDDG nemesis, was the first to air the tapes.

  • On October 14, the TV station aired bits of a lengthy recording of more than an hour, allegedly taken on October 11;
  • On October 16, the Prosecutor’s office aired the second batch, of a several shorter snippets from the conversation that allegedly took place much earlier, on July 6;
  • On October 17, Rustavi 2 has aired another batch, made recently, either in September or early October, as participants refer to the Okuashvili affair, a series of allegations leveled recently against GDDG.

Why are the tapes important?

The tapes’ capture political attention since Mirza Subeliani seems to hold many threads to recent scandals. Subeliani held the seemingly innocuous position of the deputy head of human resources department in the Prosecutor’s office. However, his influence seems to supersede his grade.

Subeliani was arrested on June 9, 2018, following mass public protests over the Khorava street murder of December 2017, which left two 16-year-olds – Davit Saralidze and Levan Dadunashvili – stabbed to death.

Two teenagers were arrested over the murder, but the court acquitted both suspects on group murder charges of Davit Saralidze, bolstering the existing doubts of the victim’s family that the Prosecutor’s Office had concealed some elements of the crime.

Subeliani’s son was involved in a street-fight that led to deaths, as was his nephew, Mikheil Kalandia, the main case witness, leading Saralidze’s family to believe that Mirza Subeliani, as the prosecution official, protected the murderer/s through his connections.

Subeliani was formally detained on charges of failure to report the crime. The victim’s father, Zaza Saralidze, claims this was an unwilling concession from the government to pacify thousands of Georgians who have hit the streets in solidarity with Saralidze.

Tip of the iceberg?

The tapes aired by Rustavi 2 on October 14 suggest, that Subeliani’s involvement in Khorava street murder was not accidental, but in fact, he was one of the government’s top “fixers” in complicated cases.

On that recording, Subeliani suggests, that his detention was pre-arranged with the authorities to defuse the protest. He also says, the deal was struck with the government officials, including personally with Interior Minister Giorgi Gakharia to minimize the sentence he would serve in prison.

Alongside Khorava street case, Subeliani claims on the same tape, to have helped the prosecution and political officials to tie loose ends in several high profile cases, including ex-PM Vano Merabishvili’s alleged removal from prisonretired colonel Sergo Tetradze’s case2006 Navtlugi special operation and the 2006 prison riot. Subeliani says he and his affiliates were forcing witnesses to give testimonies on these cases, including through torture.

He names several high officials, including Sozar Subari, PM Mamuka Bakhtadze’s advisor and former prisons minister, ex-PM Irakli Gharibashvili and three former chief prosecutors – Archil Kbilashvili, Otar Partskhaladze and Irakli Shotadze – as people who have used his services or condoned his actions.

Why was Subeliani speaking?

In the first Rustavi 2 recording, Subeliani was speaking to MP Japaridze in confidence, to act as a go-between between himself and Interior Minister Gakharia. Subeliani seemed to be discontent by the delay of his court trial and also by some statements of the officials that either do not support him, or worse, contradict his deposition.

Subeliani seemed to be particularly angered at Mikheil Shakulashvili, the teen murder case prosecutor, who in his deposition to the ad hoc Parliamentary commission created to look into the case, confirmed on July 23, that he met Subeliani shortly after the murder of Saralidze and Dadunashvili. During his own deposition one day earlier, Subeliani had denied that such meeting took place.

The inmate fears this could be a ploy by the authorities to file additional charges against him, which he claims would go against their agreement. 

Subeliani then speaks about his ability to blackmail the officials, while saying he has been so far refraining to do so for considerations of duty and honor. He implies that he holds evidence of illegal dealings – “terabytes of data” – and warns he will publish these materials. He asks MP Japaridze to convey his discontent to Minister Gakharia and accelerate the trial process.

MP Viktor Japaridze confirmed that the conversation did take place and that he visited the prison cell through his MP credentials. Japaridze also noted that the points raised by Subeliani “did not seem serious,” and that he “was speaking inadequately,” obviously under lot of stress from his prison time. The MP claimed he made “no reaction” to inmate’s statements.

What does the Prosecution say?

The Prosecutor’s Office says that “one of the versions the investigation is pursuing, is that Mirza Subeliani might be influencing the results of inquiry into his case through publishing false, fabricated accusations.”

On October 15, the Prosecution argued that the “preliminary analysis” of the audio recordings released by Rustavi 2, led the investigation to “actively consider the version that the recordings could have been staged by a group of individuals for future use.”

To back up their version of events, on October 16, the Prosecution presented the recording allegedly made on July 6, which is said to have been found on the memory card of a prison officer who, the prosecution claims, was pressured to release the Rustavi 2 recording.

On this recording, Subeliani is telling MP Japaridze that he feels betrayed by the government, who, he feels, is going to aggravate his charges and sentence under political pressure from Saralidze investigation.

He tells his interlocutor that he is ready to “lie” about sensitive topics, so as to put the pressure on the government. Then he proceeds to list all the cases, which were mentioned in the first tape released by Rustavi 2, as potential topics he is prepared to lie about, just to damage the GDDG.

Rustavi 2 finds inconsistencies

Nika Gvaramia, director general of Rustavi 2 TV, claims the Prosecution has staged the batch of recordings released on October 16, and implies that they were made during MP Japaridze’s October 14 visit to Subeliani – that is already after Rustavi 2 released a program teaser of its own recordings.

Gvaramia points out that the reaction of MP Japaridze to the accusations made by Subeliani on October 11 seems inconsistent with Japaridze already knowing these statements are intentionally false (since Subeliani told him about his intention to lie already in July, as Prosecution recording seems to allege).

Rustavi TV director also points out that in the Prosecution recording Subeliani makes reference to the teen murder case and says he is “aware of the developments on Rustaveli”. From the context of the conversation, Subeliani was referring to rallies in solidarity with murdered teenager’s father but the rallies were already suspended on June 11.

Gvaramia also flags several irregularities in the manner of the conversation, pointing unnatural intonations, monotonous flow and excessive use of formal language in the second batch, as opposed to expletive-ridden first batch, expressing suspicion that the two “were reading from a script” and were aware that their conversation was being recorded.

New recording

In the second Rustavi 2 tape released on October 17, Subeliani is recorded as saying that two days before his detention he met with then Minister of Corrections Kakha Kakhishvili to convey that he was ready “to willingly go to prison.”

Subeliani adds he threatened the minister with release of his covertly recorded conversation of 2013, apparently, unless he was given favorable terms while in custody.

Subeliani repeats he holds evidence of illegal dealings, and suggests he was offered GEL 2 million in exchange for releasing the materials. He is also heard saying that he has “given his word” to Sozar Subari not to disclose the materials, and that he will keep the promise only until his prison term expires.

Subeliani adds he has two options – “to kill Misha” (apparently, Mikheil Saakashvili), or “make a deal with him.” The inmate says he is not planning to pursue the second plan as “his (Misha’s) proposals are fairly unacceptable” for him. Subeliani speaks on the first option as well, saying he is ready to kill “Misha,” and plot the murder in “maximum 2-3 months.”

Prosecution: Security Service Planned Patarkatsishvili Murder in 2007

Wed, 10/17/2018 - 20:29

The Chief Prosecutor’s Office called a briefing on October 17 to report that Giorgi Merebashvili, a former senior official of the Interior Ministry’s Department of Constitutional Security (DCS, disbanded in 2012) has been arrested and two other former DCS officials, Levan Kardava and Revaz Shiukashvili, who are already convicted in other unrelated cases, have been charged with planning to assassinate Georgian tycoon, Badri Patarkatsishvili under aggravating circumstances in 2007.

Two covert audio files, seized according to Prosecutor Koka Katsitadze in 2016 during the search of the apartment of the suspects, were played at the press briefing. These files were reportedly recorded on February 4-5, 2007 and in prosecutor’s words, contain interlocutors discussing “the issue of preparing the liquidation of a specific person”.

The prosecutor’s office claimed that in one of the audio files, dated February 4, 2007, Giorgi Dgebuadze, former senior DCS official is trying to recruit a member of Patarkatsishvili’s security guard.

Another recording dated February 5, 2007, reportedly features a working meeting at the DCS headquarters, with Giorgi Dgebuadze, Levan Kardava, Revaz Shiukashvili and Giorgi Merebashvili, “plotting Badri Patarkatsishvili’s assassination, in order to eliminate him from politics.”

According to the prosecutor’s office, witness testimonies and written evidence obtained since, have proven that Patarkatsishvili’s route of movement, including at the airports, was under constant surveillance by DCS.

“According to the conversation, all issues, including relevant methods of Patarkatsishvili’s liquidation are being agreed with the then head of DCS, Data Akhalaia,” the Prosecutor’s office said.

Prosecutor Katsitadze explained, that charges were not brought until now because tens of case files needed relevant investigation and engagement of technical expertise. The prosecutor’s office said that the investigation continues to identity other accomplices to the crime.

Giorgi Dgebuadze, a former DCS official, was arrested in Netherlands in 2016 in connection with other, unrelated charges and extradited to Georgia.

Badri Patarkatsishvili, 52, Russian tycoon of Georgian origin was found dead in his house outside London on February 13, 2008. Police inquiry detected no foul play, saying Patarkatsishvili died of coronary failure, while the family had said they “trusted” the integrity of the original police investigation.

Patarkatsishvili, who was wanted in Russia, has been a financial force in Georgia’s politics since 2001. After having initially supported the 2003 “Rose Revolution” he has diverged sharply with President Mikheil Saakashvili’s administration from 2006, launched and financed anti-governmental rallies organized by the opposition in 2007. These events were widely reported and promoted by Imedi TV, which Patarkhatsishvili has founded.

After the violent crackdown on one of such protests and the forced closure of Imedi TV on November 7, 2007, the Georgian General Prosecutor’s Office charged Patarkatsishvili with an attempted coup. Covertly recorded conversation with the Georgian Interior Ministry official was the key evidence. He was subsequently tried in absentia and remanded in custody, while his assets, including Imedi TV were frozen. His defense claimed that the charges were politically motivated.

Patarkatsishvili has challenged Saakashvili in January 2008 presidential elections, but pulled out after the charges were brought against him a day before the vote. Formally though, he stayed on the ballot and garnered 7.1% of votes, finishing third.

For more details, about Patarkatsishvili’s path, please refer to Civil.ge’s 2007 article.

Activists Criticize Police Delays in Teen Bride Kidnapping Investigation

Wed, 10/17/2018 - 17:25

Georgian Women’s Movement, a group of human rights and gender equality activists, gathered in front of the Government administration yesterday, accusing the law enforcement bodies of “closing their eyes” on teen bride kidnapping in Georgia.

The protest came four days after a 17-year-old ethnic Azerbaijani girl was reportedly forcefully abducted from her house in village Lambalo in Kakheti, region in eastern Georgia. The Women’s Movement claims police knows the identity of the offender, but takes no action so far.

In its statement on October 16, Interior Ministry announced that investigation is underway under the article 143 of the Georgian Criminal Code that refers to a premeditated unlawful imprisonment of a minor. However, the Women’s Movement claims police is delaying the process, hoping the families would settle the matter.

Baia Pataraia, a gender-rights activist, stresses that the state does not have a clear policy against early and forced marriages, while the police attitude is “liberal and loyal” towards the offenders. Pataraia says this posture amounts to “ethnic and gender-based discrimination,” since many, but by no means all, bride kidnappings tend to happen in areas populated by Georgia’s ethnic minorities.

According to Women’s Movement, “abduction of young girls for marriage is a common practice among the ethnic minorities living in Georgia … Police hardly ever find the kidnappers, who – in most cases – hide in the nearby villages with their relatives.”

The Interior Ministry’s press office told Civil.ge today that there are no updates to report in the mentioned case.

Only those who are above 18 are allowed to get married in Georgia, according to the country’s Civil Code, whereas “sexual intercourse or any other act of sexual nature with a person who has not attained the age of 16 years” considers imprisonment for a term of seven to nine years.

In 2017, 386 boys (458 in 2016) and 2213 girls (2545 in 2016) were reported as married between 16-19, according to the State Statistics Office, Geostat. Based on the Public Defender’s special report on early marriage, 408 students aged 13-17 left schools in 2015 because of marriage, whereas 168 dropped out at the age of 18.

Speaker Slams UNM, Rustavi 2 for ‘Brainwashing Campaign’

Wed, 10/17/2018 - 16:38

Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze, who has emerged as the leading campaigner for the ruling party-endorsed presidential candidate, Salome Zurabishvili, slammed the opposition United National Movement for carrying out a “brainwashing, propaganda campaign.”

Kobakhidze made the statement at a press briefing on October 16, a day after Rustavi 2 TV, a national broadcaster leaning strongly towards opposition, aired a covertly recorded audio tape implicating senior officials in case-fixing and other criminal offenses.

The Speaker stressed Rustavi 2, “UNM’s partisan outlet,” is pursuing a “Russian-style campaign of brainwashing and propaganda,” but added that the campaign is “destined to fail as nothing can overshadow truth.”

Kobakhidze then said the Omega Group and the case-fixing tapes were “staged performances,” and examples of UNM’s “brainwashing campaign.”

The Speaker said the first performance “failed as soon as the public learnt that the person (Zaza Okuashvili) wanted to avoid paying taxes.” “We are now seeing another performance, and questions about it will be addressed just like in the first case,” he added.

Kobakhidze touched upon the election campaign as well, reiterating that the ruling party wanted to conduct “a European-style election campaign,” but opponents “chose to carry out a campaign that is far from European, western political and electoral culture.”

“The candidate we have endorsed has been attacked in multiple, absolutely unacceptable forms … there have been attempts to pressure her supporters psychologically,” he noted, adding that these attempts were “unsuccessful,” and that Zurabishvili would obtain “a convincing victory.”

The Speaker touched upon the upcoming polls later on October 16, in his interview with Imedi TV. Kobakhidze said UNM “cannot have an illusion” that they will win the elections, and instead is considering “a proto-revolutionary scenario.”

“We will not let the United National Movement trigger even a minor turmoil in the country, this may be their intention, but we are here to prevent it,” Speaker Kobakhidze noted.

The elections will take place on October 28. This will be the last time that the head of state will be elected through direct ballot. According to the new constitution, which will enter into force upon new president’s inauguration, the heads of state will be elected by a 300-member Electoral College for a term of five years starting from 2024.

For the extended background, follow our Weekly Elections Digest or the 2018 Presidential Elections Tag.

Iberia TV Stops Broadcasting

Wed, 10/17/2018 - 14:47

Iberia TV, a Tbilisi-based station, has suspended broadcasting amid its management’s claims that the authorities are trying to shut down this critically-minded television station. The management says the TV company is no longer able to cover its operational costs.

The decision comes five weeks after employees and owners of Iberia TV accused the authorities of pressure and artificially creating financial problems to the Omega Group’s cigarette production company – Omega Group Tobacco (OGT). Omega Group is the owner and the main funding source of Iberia TV.

It also comes after Zaza Okuashvili, one of the founders of the Omega Group, implicated the Georgian Dream leadership in extortion, racketeering and money laundering.

A caption reading “The authorities have Closed down Iberia!!!” appeared on television screens late on October 16.

According to Vakho Khuzmiashvili, head of Iberia TV’s newsroom, the authorities “did everything to shut down our programming, and have successfully managed to achieve that.” “Full responsibility for what’s happening in Iberia TV rests with the authorities,” he said.

MP Nato Chkheidze, one of the founders of Iberia TV, commented on the matter as well, saying the authorities have been trying to achieve the goal for the last two years. “This is very regretful not only for Iberia TV, but also for the entire country, because when governments challenge media with such methods, it does not reflect well on them,” she added.

Iberia TV, which is owned by the Omega Group, a business conglomerate, was established in 2000. It was closed down in 2004 three months after the Omega Group-owned businesses, including Iberia TV, were raided by special task forces in what the authorities at the time said was part of a tax evasion probe. The television station resumed operations in 2015, two years after it restored its broadcasting license.

146 Georgian Students from Occupied Areas Enroll in Universities

Wed, 10/17/2018 - 12:19

146 school graduates from Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia enrolled at universities in the Tbilisi-controlled territory in 2018, according to the regions’ exiled administrations.

138 students are from Gali district in Abkhazia, and the remaining eight are from Akhalgori district in Tskhinvali. Gali and Akhalgori are predominantly populated by ethnic Georgians.

According to the Ministry of Education of the Abkhazian government-in-exile, this year, 260 school graduates from Gali took part in the national exams, general examinations for university admissions. In 2017, 250 graduates went through the exams and 120 were enrolled.

According to the Educational Department at the Tbilisi-based Provisional Administration of South Ossetia, there were a total of 21 schools graduates from Akhalgori district in 2018. Last year, 18 graduated and five got admitted.

Tuition waiver

Students from the two regions are eligible to receive the tuition funding. The program, launched by the Government of Georgia in 2010, covers the students’ four-year tuition fees – GEL 2,250 annually (regular tuition fee at state-funded universities).

Last year, 116 students from Gali district and 5 students from Akhalgori district were funded through this program. Decision on this year’s funding is still pending.

The funding scheme is also available for students who studied in areas that were under the control of the central government before the 2008 Russo-Georgian war – Tigva, Eredvi, Kurta and Perevi communities in Tskhinvali Region, and Azhara community in Abkhazia. Residents of these areas were forced to flee after the 2008 Russo-Georgian war.

  • Gali is home to some 40,000 ethnic Georgians, who make up almost all of the district’s population;
  • Akhalgori is home to approximately 2,500 ethnic Georgians, who make up 55.5% of the district population.

Key Participant in Case-Fixing Tapes Attempts Suicide

Tue, 10/16/2018 - 23:29

Mirza Subeliani, a former official in the Prosecutor’s Office, who had implicated senior Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia (GDDG) officials in case-fixing and other criminal offenses, attempted suicide late on October 15, the Penitentiary Service reported on October 16.

Who is Mirza Subeliani?

Mirza Subeliani, a former employee of the Prosecutor’s Office, was arrested on June 9 following mass public protests over the Khorava street murder of December 2017, which left two 16-year-olds – Davit Saralidze and Levan Dadunashvili – stabbed to death.

Subeliani’s son was involved in a street-fight that lead to deaths, as was his nephew, Mikheil Kalandia, the main case witness. Zaza Saralidze, the father of one of the murdered teens, claims Subeliani, as the prosecution official, was closely involved in covering up some elements of the crime. Subeliani was detained on charges of failure to report crime after thousands of Georgians have hit the streets in solidarity with Zaza Saralidze.

Contradictory recordings

  • On October 14, Rustavi 2 TV, a national broadcaster leaning strongly towards opposition, aired a covertly recorded audio tape of what appears to be a conversation of inmate Mirza Subeliani with MP Viktor Japaridze of the ruling Georgian Dream party and Davit Tsukhishvili, a former official in the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons. The recording implicates senior officials in case-fixing and other offenses. These recordings were allegations made in a prison facility, where Subeliani is in pre-trial detention. They were apparently made in late September or early October.
  • Today, on October 16, the Prosecutor’s Office released the second batch of covert recordings, which were allegedly taken earlier than the first batch, in July. As in the first tape, Subeliani is speaking with MP Japaridze. He is recorded as saying that he feels betrayed by the government, who, he feels, is going to aggravate his charges and sentence under political pressure from Saralidze investigation. He tells his interlocutor that he is ready to “lie” about sensitive topics, so as to put the pressure on the government. Then he proceeds to list all the cases, which were mentioned in the tape released by Rustavi 2, as potential topics he is prepared to lie about, just to damage the GDDG.

Prosecution’s version

In a statement released alongside the second batch of recordings, the Prosecutor’s Office explained these were found on the memory card of I.P., the prison officer who, the prosecution claims, was pressured to release the first recording.

The prosecution said it decided to release the second batch “considering high public interest” following the release of the first batch on TV.

The statement also said the prosecution holds one more, additional batch of recordings, which were not released at this stage, and the precise content of which remains unknown.

The Prosecutor’s Office added that “one of the versions the investigation is pursuing, is that Mirza Subeliani might be influencing the results of inquiry into his case through publishing false, fabricated accusations.”

Already yesterday, on October 15, the Prosecution said the “preliminary analysis” of the first batch of audio recordings, led the investigation to “actively consider the version that the recordings could have been staged by a group of individuals for future use.”

Rustavi 2 director claims prosecution recording ‘was staged’

Nika Gvaramia, director general of Rustavi 2 TV, claims in turn that the Prosecution has staged the second batch of recordings.

On October 15, Gvaramia told Rustavi 2 reporters that MP Japaridze was brought to Subeliani’s prison cell to record a new, fake conversation which would discredit the one published by the Rustavi 2 TV station a day earlier.

Updated: Internet portal On.ge has obtained a copy of permission, issued by Parliament Speaker Kobakhidze, that authorized MP Japaridze to meet Subeliani on 14 October, the same day when the first batch of recordings was released by Rustavi 2.

Web Magazine Liberali has obtained copies of all permissions issued by Speaker Kobakhidze to authorize MP Japaridze’s visits to Subeliani. According to the official documents, the right to visit was granted on 6 July, 20 July, 10 September, 11 October და 14 October, 2018. Rustavi 2 says the recording aired by them, was made on 11 October. Prosecution claims that their batch was recorded on 6 July.

In a press briefing today, Gvaramia referred to his own prediction and accused the authorities of attempting to cover up one “systemic crime” with another.

Gvaramia then proceeded to point at several problems with the second batch of recordings:

  • Firstly, he said the authorities did not to provide information on how the new audio recording was obtained. The Prosecution said the first batch was obtained illegally and has launched an inquest into the matter, but the second batch was released without the comment concerning its source or legality. Unauthorized eavesdropping is a criminal offense in Georgia.
  • Secondly, Gvaramia pointed out, that in case MP Japaridze was told by Subeliani already in July, that he was going to falsely accuse the GDDG officials, why would he a) not notify the GDDG, his own party beforehand and especially b) why when Subeliani repeated the accusations in September, Japaridze did not retort, that he already knew – from Subeliani – these claims were patently false. Gvaramia said “it appears [from their recording] that Japaridze is also complicit in what Subeliani was planning,” he noted.
  • He also flagged several irregularities in the manner of the conversation, pointing unnatural intonations, monotonous flow and excessive use of formal language in the second batch, as opposed to expletive-ridden first batch, expressing suspicion that Japaridze and Subeliani “were reading from a script” and were aware that their conversation was being recorded.
  • He also pointed out that in the new recording Subeliani makes reference to the teen murder case and says he is “aware of the developments on Rustaveli.” Gvaramia suggests Subeliani was referring to the solidarity rallies held in front of the Parliament building on Rustaveli Avenue. He says the rallies were over by June 11, which contradicts Subeliani’s account.

Gvaramia concluded by saying that the television station holds more – “longer” and “more natural” – audio recordings, depicting conversations about “grave facts.” He director provided no further details, but announced that the tapes will be released in the coming days.

Transparency International Alarmed Over State Capture, Pressure on CSOs in Georgia

Tue, 10/16/2018 - 17:46

Transparency International, a global anti-corruption coalition, released a statement on October 16, condemning the “recent indications of increased state capture in Georgia and verbal attacks on civil society by prominent members of government.”

TI stated that as Georgia’s October 28 Presidential Elections are approaching, the organization joins “its Georgian chapter in urging the government to refrain from making baseless accusations that could hamper the work of civil society election observers.”

“The government must also fully investigate allegations of grand corruption arising from the leaked audio files,” the statement reads.

Alarming indications of increased state capture and of verbal attacks on civil society in Georgia. We join @TIGeorgiaEng in calling for investigations into corruption allegations.
➡ https://t.co/xqSEXVSQ6d

— Transparency Int’l (@anticorruption) October 16, 2018

According to TI Chairperson Delia Ferreira Rubio, “for many years, Georgia has been one of the top performing countries in its region on anti-corruption and good governance,” while “the recent backsliding on democratic governance is extremely troubling.”

“It would be a great shame if Georgia’s progress towards improved rule of law would turn instead towards kleptocracy and impunity for corruption,” Delia Ferreira Rubio said.

The ruling Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia (GDDG) officials launched a coordinated broadside against Georgian civil society groups, including TI Georgia, following the statement of Georgian watchdogs condemning “a severe crisis in the governance system, clear signs of high level corruption and informal, clan rule.”

Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze, who has emerged as the key GDDG spokesperson during the presidential campaign, has lashed out at the CSOs, saying their leadership was partisan, their objectives self-serving, and their claim to represent public opinion – unsubstantiated.

Also today, TI Georgia announced that its Executive Director Eka Gigauri has received a private “threatening message from a specific individual” on October 13 containing “derogatory language, as well as threats of physical retaliation,” and addressed the Prosecutor’s Office to launch investigation.

“Threatening and insulting private messages intensified after high-level government officials, including the Chairperson of the Parliament and a number of MPs, began an aggressive campaign against the non-governmental organizations last week,” the TI Georgia said in a statement.

TI Georgia also emphasized that similar attempts to discredit CSOs occur “mostly when criticism is voiced against the government,” and noted that “any form of criticism is allowed in a democratic society, however, there should be an immediate response when such criticism includes threats.”

President Wants Government Session over Covert Recordings

Tue, 10/16/2018 - 15:59

President Giorgi Margvelashvili has formally asked the Government to hold a meeting with his participation to deliberate on “effective functioning of state institutions and protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms.” The President made the announcement during his press briefing today.

Margvelashvili’s request comes after a set of covert recordings were published by Georgian media outlets, implicating senior officials in criminal offenses and causing wide-spread political and public condemnation.

The President said developments surrounding Iberia TV and Omega Group are “alarming.” He said the authorities’ response to “allegations of criminal dealings, racketeering and abuse of power” was “inadequate for a political force that has a responsibility to govern the country.”

“These issues are neither laughable, nor ludicrous,” he stressed, referring to GDDG leadership attempts to downplay the allegations.

“The Georgian public has a feeling that state institutions have been weakened to the point that endangers effective protection of human rights, freedoms, rule of law and private property,” President Margvelashvili added, calling for “adequate assessment and measures.”

“I see the solution in finding right diagnosis and taking corresponding measures through discussions with the Government of Georgia; therefore, I am using my constitutional right and am addressing the Prime Minister to convene a cabinet session in coming days,” he said.

Message to the army, cannabis cultivation law

In his remarks, the President also addressed the servicemen, apparently in reference to Salome Zurabishvili’s controversial Russo-Georgian war remarks.

Margvelashvili said he does not want “the political turbulence to spill over to the army.” “These political debates should not affect you; rest assured that your service to Georgia, which is occupied by the Russian Federation, is valued by Georgian citizens,” he noted.

“The right of Georgia to annihilate any enemy that invades [Georgia’s] territory and to protect its sovereignty is the foundation of its statehood; your courage on the battlefield was and will always be valued; and there can be no question about it!,” President Margvelashvili added.

He also spoke strongly against the government-sponsored bill on cannabis cultivation, saying he is is “absolutely against the idea of industrial cultivation of drugs.” He said he has two reasons – that the country won’t be able to control it effectively, and that cannabis production will “harm Georgia’s international image.”

  • This is the third time President Margvelashvili has requested the government to hold a session with his participation. In November 2014, he called for a meeting to discuss foreign policy-related issues, while in October 2015 he requested a sitting over energy security. Both requests were ignored by the government.
  • According to the Constitution of Georgia, the President is entitled to request “particular matters” to be discussed at Government sittings and participate in the discussion. In the new constitution, which is to enter into force upon new President’s inauguration, the President will no longer be able to enjoy this right.

Georgian FM Joins EaP Ministerial in Luxembourg, Reiterates EU Aspirations

Tue, 10/16/2018 - 12:35

Foreign Minister Davit Zalkaliani participated in the annual Eastern Partnership (EaP) ministerial meeting, chaired by the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini in Luxembourg on October 15.

The meeting brought together foreign ministers from six EaP countries and their 28 EU counterparts, to take stock of progress made under 20 deliverables for 2020, as well as exchange views for the upcoming 10th anniversary of the Eastern Partnership, which will be marked by a series of events throughout 2019.

The Georgian Foreign Minister said after the meeting that European partners have hailed Georgia as “the frontrunner” in the region considering its “tangible results,” including in implementation of the Association Agreement/DCFTA, and the visa free regime.

Minister Zalkaliani also stressed the need for the EU to have a “differentiated approach” towards individual EaP countries.

“Our final goal is [the EU] membership, and we need more efficient and bolder steps to achieve that,” the Minister said in his doorstep remarks, adding that Georgia’s EU integration roadmap was assessed as an “important factor” that would “functionally” prepare the country for eventual membership.

Highly important mtg of #EaP FMs

Georgian Dream, Opposition Politicians on Subeliani Tape

Tue, 10/16/2018 - 10:30

Rustavi 2 TV aired on October 14 a covertly recorded audio tape of what appears to be a conversation of inmate Mirza Subeliani with MP Viktor Japaridze of the ruling Georgian Dream party and Davit Tsukhishvili, a former official in the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons. The recording implicates senior officials in case-fixing and other offenses.

Georgian politicians have reacted to the audio recording. Here are some of the excerpts:

Reactions from the ruling party

Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze: We have already seen one unsuccessful performance and we are now offered another, which will have the same unhappy ending, because where there is no violation and no crime, no incriminating material can be made up … As for the nine years [of UNM governance], the idea about your regime was based not on kompromats and secret recordings, but hard facts – that 10000 people had gifted their property to the state, that you had tortured and killed people. This is what I call fascism, and neither of the performances can overshadow it. As for Mirza Subeliani, we have demonstrated that we are not scared of threats and blackmail and this person is in prison. We will maintain a similar approach in the future as well. If, for example, Mirza Subeliani will be threatening [us], we won’t be scared and will act in accordance with our principles. If someone will commit a wrongdoing, I promise, the parliament will not close its eyes under any circumstance.

Justice Minister Tea Tsulukiani: All I can tell you [now] is that the interrogations and the investigation process have been underway. I hope the Prosecutor’s Office will inform the public about the investigation process in full transparency.

MP Eka Beselia: I am interested in the legal side of the issue … What’s important for me is the official information regarding the recording’s authenticity and legality. I have serious questions concerning its legality, on how it was obtained … If authenticity is confirmed, we can then move on to discussing its content – ask questions and clarify all the aspects. Before that, [going into its substance] is not only unserious, but also very dangerous.

MP Irakli Sesiashvili: There is no doubt that the investigation should be launched, but as we have witnessed several fabrications in recent weeks, the authenticity of the recordings published by Rustavi 2 over different issues, is questionable. Therefore, I cannot immediately trust [them] and will wait for the investigation … Of course, questions exist – we all have them, because the conversations and methods that are voiced [in the recording] is unacceptable for our government. Therefore, we need to receive answers to these questions.

Reactions from presidential candidates

Grigol Vashadze, UNM-led coalition: Georgia is going through very tough days. Today, we saw the scale of treason plotted against Georgia. We found out that we have neither the state nor the government. We saw that the state is being run by armed criminal units. We saw complete impunity in the prison system, where people like Subeliani can bring officials in prison cells for questioning inmates and attending the process of their torture. We saw that the Prosecutor’s Office is being run from outside by criminal [Otar] Partskhaladze and his armed group. We saw that the court has turned into a group of clan members, which unconditionally fulfills all orders of the Mafiosi. The citizens of Georgia saw that Ivanishvili has returned the country back to the criminal impunity of the 1990s. He restored not one Mkhedrioni, but created several Mkhedrionis (Mkhedrioni was a paramilitary group in early 1990s), which took over the country. We saw armed gangs of torturers, who kidnap and torture witnesses and force them to give testimonies in the interests of the so called authorities … I call on all political parties and civil society organizations to join us, because early parliamentary elections and victory in the presidential elections in the first round is what the opposition coalition has been aiming at from the very first day of the election campaign. Otherwise, we will turn into a country without rule of law, where institutions and constitution are no longer in place.

Davit Bakradze, European Georgia: These recordings are not about one particular case, or about particular officials and agencies; they are about the Georgian state and the future of every one of us, because if the authenticity of these recordings is proved, it will mean that we no longer have a state, we no longer have institutions and that the country is run by individuals of Mafiosi thinking and informal influence. It means that our children and we no longer have prospects of living a dignified life in this country. We all remember very well the problems persisting before 2012, when the voters fairly rejected an excessively strong state, a state that interfered in the lives of its citizens, but today, we have received a more dangerous extreme; when the state and the state institutions have practically collapsed and the country is run by individuals through criminal, mafia-like dealings guided by their business interests. This situation is alarming … The audio recording confirms that we no longer have the Prosecutor’s Office, we no longer have the investigative bodies and Georgia has turned into a country of rulers hiding behind the façade of a collapsing democracy. The Georgian society should give its response to this alarming situation and the best response is the upcoming presidential elections just 12 days from today … The society should demonstrate that it has a vision on how to advance the country and that the road to it lies through rejecting the incumbent authorities, the government-endorsed candidate and choosing the path that will push us forward and help us out of this swamp.

Shalva Natelashvili, Labor Party: Unfortunately, oligarchs have incarcerated the Georgian state in a basement (editor’s note: Natelashvili is alluding to the claims of businessman Zaza Okuashvili that former Sports Minister Levan Kipiani was locked up in a basement by former Chief Prosecutor Otar Partskhaladze). As a result, justice, politics, rules and laws have been done and implemented from the underground, depending on how much money one wants to steal from the country and its people. My presidency will put an end to this chaos and return the state to the Georgian people. Unfortunately, old times have returned – illegal armed groups have been established and not only by [Otar] Partskhaladze and [Mirza] Subeliani. Other oligarchs have similar groups as well … The state has been disintegrated into feudal principalities, armed groups.

Davit Usupashvili, Development Movement: Unfortunately, what we heard today was not surprising for me and I was convinced of its authenticity without the conclusion of forensic analysis, because the system has long been heading in that direction. The Georgian Dream has to be changed, because it failed to dismantle the wretched system of the United National Movement and has continued using it recklessly. The immediate goal should be to pave the way for [early] parliamentary elections through the upcoming presidentials. I think early parliamentary elections could be a possible solution to these problems.

Salome Zurabishvili, the GDDG-endorsed candidate: I feel very uncomfortable that we still live in the Soviet period of secret recordings, when some people endlessly release some recordings. I hope that during my presidency, this Soviet period will genuinely end and we will no longer communicate through [secret] tapes.

For the extended background, follow our Tags on Mirza Subeliani or the Teen Murder Case.

Prosecution: Subeliani Recordings Obtained through Coercion, Possibly Staged

Mon, 10/15/2018 - 16:20

The Chief Prosecutor’s Office announced today that the recently-released audio recording implicating high-ranking Georgian Dream officials in case-fixing, was obtained from an employee of the prison facility through coercion.

In a statement released on October 15, the Prosecutor’s Office said an inquiry into the recordings was launched on October 12 upon request of the prison officer (identified by initials – I.P.), who was reportedly pressured to release tapes containing inmate Mirza Subeliani’s conversations.

The Prosecutor’s Office said I.P. was blackmailed by an unidentified individual, threatening to release “videos depicting his private life” (usually, an euphemism for incriminating sex tapes). No details were provided, as to whether the Subeliani recording was originally authorized by respective prison officials.

The Prosecutor’s Office said investigation into the matter was opened on four charges – unlawful collection and disclosure of personal information; coercion, unauthorized recording and use of private communication; and abuse of official powers.

“All necessary investigative and operative steps are being carried out to identify persons involved in this crime, as well as on allegations voiced in the covert recording,” it noted.

The Prosecutor’s Office added that following “preliminary analysis” of the audio recordings, the investigation “is actively considering the version that the recordings could have been staged by a group of individuals for future use.”

The Office also reported that it had found several other covert tapes in I.P.’s memory card, which, together with the one published by Rustavi 2 TV, will undergo through forensic analysis.

Prosecution did not comment on substance of the recorded conversations, which implicates senior officials in case-fixing and other offenses.

For the extended background, follow our Tags on Mirza Subeliani or the Teen Murder Case.