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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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Syndicate content Civil.ge:
news. nuance. context.
Updated: 1 hour 46 min ago

Telavi Municipality Tells Opposition to Move the Inauguration Protest

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 16:51

The Telavi Municipality has asked the United Opposition, a coalition of eleven political parties led by the United National Movement, to move their protest rally, scheduled during the inauguration of the President-elect, Salome Zurabishvili to an alternative location.

The inauguration is planned to take place in Telavi, on December 16. The United Opposition called its supporters to rally in protest so that the government “once again hears the voice of furious voters.”

Commenting on the issue, Telavi Mayor Shota Nareklishvili said that “since a lot of foreign delegations will be attending the inauguration, and the suggested area of the rally is where these delegations will be moving, we have offered the opposition an alternative place for their rally.”

The opposition has refused, with UNM’s political council member Giorgi Botkoveli saying the  opposition would hold the rally at the location they intended, and that it was not within the purview of the Telavi Municipality to decide upon this issue.

He then addressed the City Hall “to protect the right of peaceful citizens to express protest [in a rally] that will be entirely civilized.”

The United Opposition voiced its decision to hold a peaceful protest rally on December 12 after the government rejected their “compromising proposals” and “conclusions of international organizations and observers.”

CEC Approves Second Round Vote Tally

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 15:38

The Central Election Commission (CEC) approved on December 14 the final vote tally of the second round of presidential elections.

According to the CEC protocol, 1,988,787 voters turned out at polling stations on November 28, out of 3,528,658 registered voters. 59,778 ballots were annulled, a much higher figure than in the first round of presidential elections (53,847).

The final election result is as follows:

  • Salome Zurabishvili, independent/ruling party-backed – 1,147,701 votes (59.52%);
  • Grigol Vashadze, opposition coalition led by the United National Movement – 780,680 votes (40.48%).

On November 28, Georgians went to the polls to elect their fifth president, replacing incumbent President Giorgi Margvelashvili, who has been in office since October, 2013.

The inauguration of President-elect, Salome Zurabishvili is planned in a eastern Georgian town of Telavi on December 16. Simultaneously, the opposition coalition plans to hold a protest rally.

Former Marneuli Mayor Released on Bail

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 14:45

The court in Marneuli ruled on December 13 to release on GEL 10,000 bail the former Mayor of Marneuli, Temur Abazov, who was arrested in June 2018 on charges of inhuman and degrading treatment of a local resident.

The prosecutor’s office told Civil.ge on Friday that since all witnesses had been interrogated, there was no threat of pressure.

Commenting on the court ruling, Temur Abazov said he was “a victim of dirty provocation,” and that he would file a lawsuit for “slander.”

Abazov has been suspended from office pending the trial. His deputy, Zaur Tabatadze has been appointed as Acting Mayor.

Temur Abazov was arrested on charges of inhuman and degrading treatment of a local resident on June 13. Later the court sentenced him to pretrial detention.

The arrest came a day after Tbilisi-based Studio Monitor published a story showing a video of Alakhvediev compelled to apologize for verbally insulting the ruling party founder and leader Bidzina Ivanishvili and Marneuli Mayor Temur Abazov at one of the recent solidarity rallies in Tbilisi. Another video, obtained by Studio Monitor, showed Alakhvediev forced to wipe his face with what seemed to be his urine.

46th Round of Geneva International Discussions

Thu, 12/13/2018 - 17:45

The 46th round of the Geneva International Discussions (GID) – the multilateral forum to address security and humanitarian consequences of the Russo-Georgian War of August 2008 – was held on December 11-12.

Key takeways:

  • Participants from Tskhinvali agree to resume IPRM in Ergneti. No progress on Gali IPRM;
  • Russian participants criticize NATO engagement in Georgia, repeat Lugar Lab accusations;
  • Moscow, Tskhinvali and Sukhumi representatives walk out from the session on IDPs.
The GID are co-chaired by representatives of OSCE, EU and UN, and involve participants from Georgia, Russia and the United States, as well as members of both the Georgian exiled administrations of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia and the two regions’ Russian-backed authorities. Sessions are held in two working groups, with the first group discussing peace and security matters, and the second – humanitarian concerns.

Positions taken: Georgia

The Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) issued a statement regarding the December 11-12 negotiations, saying Georgia’s main points were concerning the necessity to find a solution to humanitarian problems of the conflict-affected population.

The MFA said in its statement, that the Georgian participants spoke of the “grave consequences” of Russian Federation’s “illegal occupation and factual annexation” of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia on local population, as well as the process of ongoing militarization, including frequent military drills as well as the cases of violation of Georgia’s airspace.

Tbilisi also denounced illegal marking of the occupation line with artificial barriers close to the Atotsi village in the Kareli municipality, southwest of Tskhinvali. Special focus was made on the need to investigate deaths of Archil TatunashviliGiga Otkhozoria and Davit Basharuli, and the need for “restoring justice” in these cases.

According to MFA, Russia’s responsibility, “as the power exercising effective control in the occupied territories,” was emphasized in cases of human rights violations, which among others include: restriction of free movement, restrictions imposed on schooling in Georgian language, violation of property and other fundamental rights, as well as ethnic discrimination in Georgian-populated Gali and Akhalgori districts.

“It was underscored that the existing discriminatory restrictions and, consequent grave socio-economic situation lays ground for yet another wave of ethnic cleansing,” the statement reads.

The MFA added that it was not possible to discuss one of the main issues concerning the return of refugees and internally displaced persons from Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions, due to “destructive approach” of participants from Moscow, Sokhumi and Tskhinvali, who left the negotiations room “to avoid discussion on the issue.”

According to the MFA, “the co-chairs and co-moderators from EU, UN and OSCE, as well as representatives of United States were unanimous on the necessity of holding discussions on improve security, humanitarian and human rights situation on the ground.”

Lasha Darsalia, newly appointed Deputy Foreign Minister has led the Georgian team for the first time  at the GID, although he has previously participated in the process as the Deputy State Minster for Reconciliation and Civic Equality.

Positions taken: Russia, Tskhinvali, Sokhumi

The December 12 statement of the Russian Foreign Ministry (MID) said, “all” of GID participants “except of Georgia” assessed the situation “in the border areas” as “stable overall.” According to the Ministry, the statistics confirms there were no serious problems with freedom of movement along the occupation line, and that the number of cases “does not exceed the average.”

The MID added that the participants welcomed the decision of Tskhinvali to resume participation in Incident Prevention and Response Mechanisms (IPRMs). “The Russian side called for the co-chairs to contribute to forming balanced and depoliticized agenda of these meetings,” MID said, adding that “the future of another IPRM, in Gal, depends on this to great extent as well.”

The Russian statement also said that discussions concerning the possibility of an agreement on non-use of force were also “stark,” and the opinions have diverged.

“Russian, Abkhazian and South Ossetian delegations once again emphasized that military actions of the United States and NATO on Georgia’s territory pose the main challenge to the regional security, including the plans of Washington and Tbilisi to modernize a military airport in Vaziani, as well as to hold more large-scale multi-national exercises in 2019,” MID said, urging Georgia to “stop channeling someone else’s interests, and instead try to improve relations with its neighbors.”

MID also denounced the recent statements of the NATO Secretary General and U.S. Secretary of State in support of Georgia’s NATO membership, saying that “precisely such irresponsible promises in August 2008 have pushed Tbilisi into a criminal military adventure.”

They once again expressed mistrust for the Richard Lugar Center for Public Health Research, a Tbilisi-based biological research facility that has been a target of Russia’s recent bio-warfare allegations.

Tskhinvali and Sokhumi echoed the Russian Foreign Ministry’s messages, and expressed their concerns on Georgia’s cooperation with NATO and U.S. The Abkhaz participants also stressed, that their position on restoring IPRM in Gali “remains unchanged.”

GID co-chair assessments

The GID co-chairs issued their own press communiqué, saying the discussions “took place yesterday in a business-like and respectful atmosphere.”

They said, co-chairs and participants “assessed the overall security situation on the ground as relatively calm and stable,” and highlighted the importance of IPRMs “over the past years in addressing security-related issues.” “In this context, the Co-Chairs urged participants to resume the regular meetings of IPRMs, in Ergneti and Gali, without delay,” the statement reads.

“Treat perceptions were addressed in detail from different angles and increased transparency was encouraged by the Co-Chairs,” it also says, noting that “the participants reaffirmed their commitment to the principle of non-use of force, agreed to continue discussions on this issue in a comprehensive manner and new proposals were welcomed in this regard.”

Reviewing the overall humanitarian situation on the ground, the participants discussed in particular issues relating to missing persons, freedom of movement, healthcare, documentation, education, livelihoods and environmental concerns. “Unfortunately, some participants walked out before the issue of IDPs/refugees could be addressed,” the co-chairs said, calling for participants “to engage constructively on all agenda items,”

An information session on the topic of “Women, Peace and Security” also took place on the eve of this round, which was welcomed by the participants.

The next round of the GID is scheduled for April 2-3, 2019.

Write-up of the previous round of the Geneva International Discussions can be found here.

Parliament Endorses 2019 State Budget

Thu, 12/13/2018 - 17:24

The Parliament of Georgia approved on December 13 the 2019 state budget with 91 votes against 9.

The revised draft of the state budget was presented to the Parliament’s plenary session by Finance Minister Ivane Machavariani on December 12.

He said that the state budget was planned in four major directions: human capital, physical capital, financial capital and security. Machavariani also noted that the government has prioritized health and education components when drafting the budget.

Budgetary revenues and expenditures in the 2019 state budget are set at GEL 10.4 billion and at GEL 9.6 billion, respectively. In the 2018 budget, the corresponding figures stand at 10.3 billion and 9.49 billion, respectively.

The state budget sets tax revenues at GEL 9.6 billion. The document sets revenues from foreign grants at GEL 382.7 million, up by GEL 14.2 million compared to the revised draft and down by GEL 31.5 million compared to the 2018 state budget.

Like in 2018, the government projects 4.5% economic growth next year, and forecasts the inflation rate at 3% with GEL/USD exchange rate at 2.66, down by 0.04 percentage points compared to the revised draft.

Breakdown of funding per ministry in the 2019 state budget is as follows:

  • Ministry of Finance – GEL 91 million, up by GEL 8.7 million compared to the 2018 budget);
  • Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development – GEL 369.5 million, up by 24.8 million compared to the revised draft (GEL 229.5 million in 2018);
  • Ministry of Regional Development and Infrastructure – GEL 2 billion, up by GEL 35 million compared to the revised draft (GEL 1.8 billion in 2018); a great portion of the funding – GEL 1.3 billion will be spent on the development of road infrastructure;
  • Ministry of Justice – GEL 181.1 million, down by GEL 5.3 million compared to the revised draft (GEL 177 million in 2018);
  • Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Labor, Health and Social Affairs – GEL 3.96 billion, up by GEL 31.4 million compared to the revised draft (GEL 3.6 billion in 2018). GEL 2.78 million will be spent on social protection and GEL 1.9 billion – on pensions;
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs – GEL 136.5 million (GEL 120.9 million in 2018);
  • Ministry of Defense – GEL 875 million, up by GEL 5 million compared to the revised draft (GEL 802 million in 2018);
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs – GEL 741.6 million, up by GEL 97.6 million (GEL 652.2 million);
  • Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture – GEL 338.9 million, up by GEL 6.6 million (GEL 274.8 million in 2018);
  • Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport – GEL 1.5 billion, down by GEL 14.2 million (GEL 1.46 million in 2018).
  • Office of the State Minister for Reconciliation and Civic Equality – GEL 2.96 million, up by GEL 115 thousand (GEL 1.9 million).

Like in the 2018 state budget, the funding of the intelligence service is set at GEL 13.5 million and security service – at GEL 136 million in 2019.

The Parliament’s funding will remain unchanged at GEL 64.7 million (up by 2.6 million). The President’s administration will receive GEL 6 million, down by GEL 3.8 compared to the revised draft. Number of its staff was reduced from 140 to 60. The Presidential reserve fund is abolished.

The government’s administration will receive GEL 16.8 million, up by GEL 1 million. Funding for the government’s reserve fund (GEL 50 million) will remain unchanged.

The Constitutional Court will again receive GEL 4.1 million in 2019. Funding for the Supreme Court will be GEL 9.5 million and common courts will receive GEL 77.7 million.

In 2019, the Central Election Commission will receive GEL 27.5 million from the budget. Funding for the Public Defender’s Office will reach GEL 6.4 million. Georgian Public Broadcaster will receive GEL 58.2 million, down by GEL 300,000.

Funding for the Georgian Orthodox Church will remain unchanged at GEL 25 million.

The Parliament was expected to pass the 2019 budget on December 12 but as there was not a sufficient number of MPs from the ruling Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia (GDDG) party present during the vote, Parliamentary Chairman Irakli Kobakhidze postponed voting for December 13.

Georgia’s Foreign Trade in Jan-Nov 2018

Thu, 12/13/2018 - 13:07

Georgia’s foreign trade turnover in the first eleven months of 2018 increased by 18.6%, compared to the same period of last year, reaching USD 11.32 billion, according to the preliminary figures released by the State Statistics Office (Geostat) on December 13.

Geostat also reported that in January-November exports from Georgia increased by 24% year-on-year to USD 3.03 billion and imports were up by 16.8% y/y to USD 8.29 billion, with trade gap standing at USD 5.25 billion.

Geostat will release detailed figures of foreign trade for the reporting period next week.

No Vote on 2019 Budget, as MPs Absent

Thu, 12/13/2018 - 00:12

The Parliament has failed to pass the 2019 budget at today’s plenary session, as there was not a sufficient number of MPs from the ruling Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia (GDDG) present during the vote.

The bill was presented today by the Minister of Finance Ivane Machavariani and its key points were discussed at the floor.

However, a political debate has led to a heated debate and mutual accusations between MP Irma Inashvili, of the Alliance of Patriots and Nika Melia, one of the leaders of the United National Movement, which has degenerated into a scuffle. The bailiffs have removed the MPs from the floor. 

As the session resumed for vote, only 67 MPs were present in the hall from the ruling party, while the budget requires 76 votes in favor. The ruling GDDG holds the constitutional majority in 150-member parliament.

“Due to irresponsible attitude of the colleagues, the vote could not be held,” Speaker Kobakhidze stated. The session would resume with the vote at noon on December 13.

Surprise Proposal for the new President not to be Staffed by Civil Servants Criticized

Wed, 12/12/2018 - 19:21

On December 6, two MPs from the ruling Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia (GDDG), Rati Ionatamishvili, (Deputy Head of the Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee) and Guram Macharashvili, (First Deputy Head of the Procedural Issues and Rules Committee and member of the Legal Issues Committee) have tabled an amendment to the recently enacted Law on Civil Service, that would transform the staff of Presidential Administration from civil servants into administrative personnel.

The explanatory note accompanying the draft proposal reads: ““The current structure of the Presidential Administration, considering the [future] role and functions of this administration, does not fully correspond to the logic advanced in the Law on Civil Service. Specifically, the staff of the Presidential Administration in effect represent assisting personnel in service of the  politically appointed official, thus they should be employed on administrative contracts [rather than civil servants].”

The move, if passed, would apply to 102 civil servants currently employed by the Administration. Currently, more than 80% of the Administrations staff are career civil servants, hired on a permanent bases, while the rest are politically appointed advisors and aides, and technical personnel. The new proposal, if passed, would transform the majority of Presidential staff into short-term, contracted personnel. The procedures for hiring, firing and promoting short term personnel, as well as the criteria for their appointment are significantly less transparent and stringent, and their contracts may be terminated at a short notice, and at will.

Following the inauguration of the President-elect, whose Constitutional competencies are narrower than those of the outgoing President, the staff number was slated to drop to 60. However, a proposal to remove civil servant status came as a surprise.

Watchdogs critical

Two local civil society organizations – Georgian Young Lawyers Association (GYLA) and Institute for Development of Freedom of Information (IDFI) – said the proposal is contrary to the Georgian government’s stated policy, damages Georgia’s commitments to the European Union and is possibly also contrary to the Constitutional guarantees of fair employment.

IDFI said on December 12 “the initiated amendments infringe upon the rights of civil servants, pose a risk to the establishment of an effective, sustainable and politically neutral civil service in Georgia and generally to the successful implementation of public administration reform.”

In a statement released on the same day, Wednesday, GYLA called upon the Parliament not to support the initiative, because its approval “would harm the labor rights of civil servants, their professional independence and stability of civil service.”

Georgian Public Defender Nino Lomjaria echoed those concerns, saying citizen enjoy a Constitutional protection from arbitrary dismissal.

Political repercussions

Giorgi Abashishvili, head of the outgoing President’s administration, slammed the initiative as “cowardly, treacherous, clearly discriminatory and anti-constitutional.” The Administration officials have met watchdogs and diplomats to brief them concerning the proposals and exchange views.

MP Sergi Kapanadze of the opposition European Georgia party also assessed the proposal negatively, saying that it “abuses the principle of civil service.”

Some representatives from the ruling party were also critical. MP Roman Kakulia, member of the GDDG political board said the “protection of civil servants is an absolute priority. We saw numerous times, what problems the state faces if the institutional memory is lacking, what happens, when each time a new political appointee [is appointed, s/he] re-hires staff that [he or she finds] personally acceptable. This notion is categorically unacceptable.” He added, however, that the specifics of the proposal needed to be hammered out.

Giorgi Kakhiani, Chairperson of the Procedures Committee, said Georgia’s civil service reform has enjoyed “wide approval from the non-governmental sector, as well as from international organizations, and I want to say that no change would be adopted that may cast a shadow on this reform.” He said the discussions on the proposal will continue, and “did not exclude” that the proposal would be withdrawn.

Former Deputy Justice Minister Alexander Baramidze, of GDDG, has slammed the proposal as “shameful” and said the adoption of the Law on Civil Service was “one of the major preconditions” for Georgia qualifying for the visa-free movement with the Schengen group of European countries. He also pointed out, that the proposed changes are in clear contradiction with the principles of the Law on Civil Service, stipulating creation of the professional civil service and of transparent hiring and career advancement procedures.

In response to the criticism, Guram Macharashvili, co-sponsor of the bill, said that the key purpose of the proposal is to bring both the number and functional profile of the presidential staff in accordance with the reduced responsibilities of the President.

James Appathurai: More NATO in Georgia Next Year

Wed, 12/12/2018 - 17:54

On December 12, NATO Secretary General’s Special Representative for the Caucasus and Central Asia, James Appathurai visited Georgia and met with Georgian leaders, including Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze, discussing NATO-Georgia cooperation.

Appathurai said he had “an excellent discussion” with the Georgian PM, covering “full range of issues,” including “steady reforms and steady progress in Georgia’s way towards NATO.” He said PM Bakhtadze “expressed the Government’s continued firm determination to carry out the will of the people, which is the Euro-Atlantic future.”

“Of course, I expressed my commitment and our commitment to help make that happen,” Appathurai stated, adding that they discussed “concrete ways to do that in terms of more cooperation on Black Sea security, more support for reform here in Georgia, which is happening well, and practical cooperation on operations.”

“Next year we will see more NATO in Georgia. We shall have a lot of high-level visits… more than this year. So that we will really show the Georgian people that this cooperation pays off and that NATO is committed,” Appathurai underscored.

According to him, the two spoke of Georgia’s recent presidential elections as well. Appathurai said he congratulated Bakhtadze on the elections but also expressed concern about “the polarization of political dialogue.” “What we want in NATO is inclusive political process,” Appathurai noted.

In Tbilisi, NATO envoy met also with Foreign Minister Davit Zalkaliani, Defense Minister Levan Izoria and President-elect Salome Zurabishvili, as well as the opposition’s presidential candidate Grigol Vashadze and civil society organizations. James Appathurai also delivered a public lecture for students.

United Opposition to Rally in Telavi on Inauguration Day

Wed, 12/12/2018 - 13:30

The United Opposition, a coalition of eleven political parties led by the United National Movement plans to hold a peaceful protest rally on December 16, in an eastern Georgian town of Telavi, where the inauguration of President-elect, Salome Zurabishvili is planned on the same date.

At a news briefing on December 12, Grigol Vashadze, the opposition’s presidential candidate, said “we want the Government to once again hear the voice of furious voters.” According to Vashadze, alongside the “main, large-scale” rally, gatherings will also be held in Tbilisi and other towns. He said the rally will be peaceful and won’t aim at disrupting the inauguration.

Vashadze also said that instead of presidential elections, Georgia got “a special operation conducted under surveillance of the criminal gangs and affiliated corrupt officials”, decrying the “arrogance” of the authorities’ refusal to consider the opposition’s call for political dialogue.

On November 29, the opposition leaders called for early parliamentary elections under proportional voting rules and invited the government and the ruling party for dialogue, which was rejected. On December 2, the coalition held a protest rally in front of the Parliament building in Tbilisi, voicing the same demands.

On November 28, Georgians went to the polls to elect their fifth president. The ruling party-backed candidate Salome Zurabishvili obtained 59.52% of the votes, while her challenger – Grigol Vashadze of the United Opposition finished with 40.48% of the votes.

PM Unveils Mountain Development Strategy for 2019-2023

Wed, 12/12/2018 - 12:17

Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze presented on December 11 the Mountain development strategy for 2019-2023 and discussed the programs planned .

Speaking at the presentation held at Expo Georgia exhibition hall, which was attended by government officials, foreign diplomats and representatives of international organizations, the Prime Minister noted that the development of mountainous regions represents one the key priorities for his Cabinet.

Bakhtadze also said that to ensure sustainable development of mountain settlements, the government plans to support small, medium and micro- enterprises, to develop farms and cooperatives, as well as to help locals develop marketable products. He also pledged to build and rehabilitate schools, upgrade telecommunication and offer more government services locally.

PM Bakhtadze also focused on the improvement of road infrastructure in these regions. According to him, tourist infrastructure and services will also be developed.

“I pledge to follow this Strategy and spare no effort for making the development of highlands an irreversible initiative,” PM Bakhtadze added. In his words, the cabinet aims to preempt depopulation of the mountain settlements , by making them comfortable and economically attractive for inhabitants.

The government’s initiative addresses some real economic and infrastructural concerns. However, some of the local inhabitants, backed by activist groups have opposed construction of the parts of proposed road infrastructure, saying it would damage the regions’ fragile ecology, deface pristine landscapes and engender unsustainable tourism.

Secretary Pompeo, President-elect Zurabishvili Speak by Phone

Tue, 12/11/2018 - 23:03

U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo called President-elect Salome Zurabishvili on December 10 to congratulate her on election victory, both State Department and Zurabishvili’s office confirmed.

Deputy Spokesperson Robert Palladino said in a media note earlier today that Pompeo and Zurabishvili “discussed U.S.-Georgian cooperation on common global security priorities, the United States’ unwavering support for Georgia’s sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity, and the importance of electoral and judicial reforms for Georgia’s democratic development and Western integration.”

Zurabishvili’s press office has issued short release immediately following the December 10 phone call, stating that Secretary Pompeo “congratulated Salome Zurabishvili with her victory in presidential elections, wished her success in affairs of state and expressed hope that the newly elected president would visit the U.S. in near future.”

PM Bakhtadze Kicks off the Debt Relief Website

Tue, 12/11/2018 - 13:47

Speaking at a news briefing yesterday, PM Bakhtadze said that starting from December 15 through the end of month individuals will be periodically removed from the so called “black list” of defaulting debtors.

The Cartu Fund, a subsidiary of the Cartu Bank has launched, in cooperation with the government, a special website on December 10. On this site, citizens will be able to verify the status of their debts in the databases of six banks, including the largest three – Bank of Georgia, TBC Bank and Liberty Bank. In frames of the government-backed scheme, the Cartu Fund has bought off the bad loans and will be gradually writing them off.

“Thus, majority of our citizens and their families will celebrate the New Year’s Eve without this pressing problem,” he noted, adding that the government’s key priority is “to eradicate poverty in the country.”

Controversial measure

Pardoning of bad debts was one of the “social packages” announced by the ruling Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia (GDDG) between the two rounds of presidential elections. As it reportedly concerns 600 thousand persons, and because Cartu Group is associated with GDDG founder and leader Bidzina Ivanishvili, the decision was deemed an election fraud by the opposition, who have filed their complaint to the court for what they see as the violation of the election code.

The international observers also stated in their preliminary conclusions, that “the announcement by the government of a debt relief equivalent to GEL 1.5 billion for 600,000 individuals funded by a private financial institution linked to the GD chairperson could amount to vote buying.”

PM Bakhtadze has alluded to those allegations in his statement, saying the government has launched discussions on excessive indebtedness long before the elections. Our “political opponents tried but failed to cast shadow on this initiative”, he said.

Georgian Police Helps France Detain Crime Bosses

Tue, 12/11/2018 - 13:27

French police arrested 22 organized crime suspects in Lyon on December 10, including 10 Georgian citizens, in cooperation with Interpol, Europol, and the Belgian and Georgian police.

Vladimer Bortsvadze, Director of Central Criminal Police Department of Georgian Interior Ministry said at a news briefing yesterday that the detainees were of Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian origin, and that the two Georgians – Mindia Nizharadze and Revaz Seskuria – are criminal bosses or so-called thieves-in-law.

According to Bortsvadze, suspects were detained as a part of a police operation codenamed “VORS 69-01” and will be charged according to the French legislation under articles of 311, 321, 324 and 450 of the Criminal Code, for repeated group theft, storage and sale of illegally obtained items, money laundering and criminal gang membership.

Earlier this year, the Georgian police has helped local law enforcement bodies detain two Georgians in Spain, 14 in France and 23 in Greece.

Nationalists Rally, Block Foreigners from Registering Land

Tue, 12/11/2018 - 10:16

The group of several ultra-nationalist organizations and individual activists united under the “March of the Georgians” picketed the Public Service Hall on December 10 to block any foreigners from registering land purchase, and in protest against the ruling of the Constitutional Court, which temporarily lifted the ban on agricultural land sales to foreign citizens.

The protesters, who were rallying outside the Public Service Hall, blocked its entrance for a certain period of time, obstructing the customers from entering the building.

MP Ada Marshania of the opposition Alliance of Patriots party, who also participated in the rally, said that “by its ruling, the Constitutional Court has stabbed Georgian nation and our state in the back.”

Former MP Dimitri Lortkipanidze, one of the leaders of the Agreement of National Forces, said that the Constitutional Court ruling “contradicts Georgia’s interests, the content of the ban, which had been initiated by Justice Minister Tea Tsulukiani.” He urged the Justice Minister to issue a special act on suspending “technical regulations” on land registration to foreign nationals.

The protesters said that their rallies would become permanent nature, calling on citizens to join their rally at the Public Service Hall on December 11.

Justice Minister Tea Tsulukiani convened a special news briefing to respond to the protesters’ demands. She called on the public for calmness, noting that an agricultural land has not been registered to the name of any foreign national on the day of the protest, saying there was “no need for knocking down the open door”.

What is the protest about?

On December 7, the Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional the provision of the law, envisaging temporary ban on agricultural land sales to foreign nationals. The ruling would only hold until December 16, when the new Constitution, containing a similar ban, and thus undercutting the Court ruling will enter into force. The protest is thus aimed at physically preventing any foreign citizen from registering land purchase during that narrow legal window.

Drive to ban land sales

The nationalist groupings have long rallied against the sale (as opposed to lease) of the agricultural land to foreigners, fanning the fears foreigners depopulating the Georgian villages and of depriving Georgia of its national treasure.

These claims have support from the ruling party, which has passed the moratorium on selling agricultural lands to foreign nationals in late June 2013, till the end of 2014, ostensibly pending clarification of the sales procedures.

The ruling was challenged as unconstitutional in September 2013 and in June 2014, the Constitutional Court of Georgia has ruled it unconstitutional and abolished it.

In June 2017, the Cabinet and the Parliamentary majority have introduced a provision in the draft constitution, prohibiting agricultural land sales to foreign citizens, citing “strategic interests of Georgian citizens and the country.”

The new constitution will enter into force upon the President’s inauguration on December 16 and the sale of agricultural lands to foreign nationals will thus be banned at a Constitutional level.

Opposition Files to Court to Annul Zurabishvili Candidacy

Mon, 12/10/2018 - 17:34

The United Opposition, a coalition of eleven political parties led by the United National Movement, has filed a lawsuit to Tbilisi City Court demanding the results of the Presidential runoff to be annulled, citing the Article 47 of the Election Code, which reads “a nominee who has pursued the above [voter bribing] activities personally or via any physical or legal persons, will lose their registration following the Court decision.”

Speaking at a news briefing on December 10, Giorgi Vashadze, head of the campaign headquarters of Grigol Vashadze, the opposition’s presidential candidate, focused on vote-buying during the election campaign and noted that they would demand the Court to annul Salome Zurabishvili’s nomination as a candidate based on these claims.

“We demand cancellation of Zurabishvili’s registration as a candidate in a way as envisaged by Georgian legislation that will lead to the annulment of the election results,” Vashadze said, stressing that if they fail to achieve any result at a local level, “we will apply to international courts, included in Strasbourg.”

He also noted that their lawsuit is accompanied by the conclusions of all trustworthy international observation organizations, indicating that the elections were held against the background of mass bribing of voters. “Salome Zurabishvili is not a legitimate president and it has its legal justification,” Vashadze claimed.

The opposition coalition also called on the prosecutor’s office to bring charges against Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze and Tbilisi Mayor Kakha Kaladze under the Article 1641 of the Criminal Code which foresees a fine or imprisonment up to 3 years for the crime of voter bribing. Vashadze said that by promising to write off bad debts worth 1.5 billion for 600,000 persons “they committed a crime during the live broadcast.”

“Our public statement imposes an obligation on you to immediately start legal proceedings against these two men,” Vashadze addressed the prosecutor’s office, adding that “sooner or later the law will triumph.”

“Our struggle will continue and we will use all mechanisms at disposal to bring this struggle to the end… We are getting ready for coming to power. It is just a matter of time, when it will happen,” Vashadze added.

On November 28, Georgians went to the polls to elect their fifth president. The ruling party-backed candidate Salome Zurabishvili obtained 59.52% of the votes, while her challenger – Grigol Vashadze of the United Opposition finished with 40.48% of the votes.

During the meeting with supporters on November 29, the opposition leaders said that they would not accept election results and called for early parliamentary elections. On December 2, the coalition held a protest rally in front of the Parliament building in Tbilisi, voicing the same demands.

The inauguration of President-elect, Salome Zurabishvili is planned in a eastern Georgian town of Telavi on December 16. Simultaneously, the opposition coalition plans to hold a protest rally.

Q3’18 FDI USD 322.6 mln: Geostat

Mon, 12/10/2018 - 14:33

Foreign direct investment in Georgia reached USD 322.6 million in the third quarter of 2018, which is 48.2% decrease compared to the same period of last year, according to the preliminary data released by the State Statistics Office on December 10.

“The main reasons for decreasing the FDI are completed pipeline project, transferring of ownership in some companies from non-resident to resident units and reduction of liabilities to non-resident direct investors,” Geostat explained.

The manufacturing sector received the largest share of FDI – USD 56.5 million, followed by transport and communication – USD 54.5 million; energy sector – USD 46.3 million; real estate – USD 38.4 million; hotels and restaurants – USD 36 million; financial sector – USD 21.2 million; mining – USD 14.4 million; construction – USD 6.2 million; agriculture and fishing – USD 4.8 million; health and social work – USD 1.3 million.

Most of the FDI came from Netherlands – USD 49.7 million. USD 40.2 million, USD 33.1 million and USD 32.1 came from companies registered in South Korea, Azerbaijan and Turkey, respectively, followed by Panama – USD 27.7 million; the United States – USD 27.1 million; Russia – USD 18.5 million; Luxembourg – USD 16.7 million; France – USD 12.4 million, and the United Arab Emirates – USD 10.6 million.

Georgian, French Defense Ministers Discuss Deepening Ties

Mon, 12/10/2018 - 13:22

Defense Minister Levan Izoria, met his French counterpart Florence Parly in Paris on December 8, to discuss defense cooperation between the two countries, the governments reported.

The two ministers signed a technical agreement on ensuring logistics for Georgian military’s continued participation in the EU-led military training mission (EUTM RCA) in the Central African Republic, which was hailed by Minister Izoria as Georgia’s continued contribution to international peace and security.

Izoria has also underscored importance of signing another deal with producer of ground-based surveillance radars and air defense command and control systems ThalesRaytheonSystems, aimed at strengthening Georgia’s air defense capabilities and their integration with NATO command and control, although no details of the deal were made available at this time.

First batch of the French-made ground-based surveillance radars and short range anti-aircraft missile systems arrived to Georgia in October, 2018. Minister Levan Izoria then announced that the country was ready to move to the next stage of negotiations with France to ensure “maximal protection” of its airspace.

While in France, the Georgian Defense Minister also met French MPs – Christian Cambon, the President of the Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces Committee of the Senate, and Jean-Jacques Bridey, the President of the French Defence Committee of the National Assembly.

Parliament Endorses New Rules of Procedure

Sat, 12/08/2018 - 13:30

On December 6, the Parliament of Georgia endorsed with 77 votes in favor and two against its new Rules of Procedure. The document is in line with the new Constitution, which is to enter into force upon President-elect Salome Zurabishvili’s inauguration on December 16.

MPs from the European Georgia, the United National Movement and the Alliance of Patriots did not participate in the process. Two Georgian Dream lawmakers voted against.

According to the explanatory note of the new Rules of Procedure, the key objective of the document is “to form the Parliament into a strong institution characteristic for parliamentary system of governance.”

“The current Rules of Procedure have demonstrated a number of shortcomings in terms of legislative and oversight processes; the norms are tailored to rapid law-making that fails to ensure high quality work of the Parliament,” reads the explanatory note.

Upgraded oversight function

Like the previous one, the new Rules of Procedure document sets out regulations for the work of the legislature and its bodies, as well as its relations with other branches of government. According to the explanatory note, one of the main purposes of the new Rules of Procedures is to strengthen the Parliament’s oversight function, especially in fields of defense and security.

Seat in Kutaisi

Under the new Rules of Procedure, Kutaisi will no longer be the parliamentary seat, and both – plenary and committee hearings – will be held in the Parliament building in Tbilisi. The legislature will be able to hold sittings outside Tbilisi in cases when the seat of the Parliament can not function, such as under the martial law or in a state of emergency. In these cases, the Chairperson of the Parliament can call the session at another location.

The Cabinet reports differently

Under the new regulations, the Prime Minister has to present an annual report on implementation of the government program during the last month of plenary sittings of the Spring Session, in June.

The Parliament, at the request of a committee or a faction, will be able to summon government members and other officials accountable to the legislature (prosecutor general, head of the state security service) to plenary sittings with a majority vote, but with no less than 1/3 of the Parliament members, instead of the previous 1/5.

A group of no less than seven lawmakers (down from the previous ten) will have the right to address the Government of Georgia and other agencies accountable to the Parliament with a written question. The addressee will have to appear before the Parliament to give its response (four times a year – in March, May, September, November).

A parliamentary committee enjoys the right to summon officials as well. An official can be invited to committee hearings by majority of its members or an individual faction. The latter has the right to invite officials only if it has a member sitting in the committee. Opposition criticizes this provision, saying it limits the functions of the parliamentary factions.

Debates rules also changed

There are new rules for holding political debates. If previously, fractions, majority and minority groups had the right to request political debates, the debates will now have to be requested by at least 1/5 of the Parliament members.

The Parliament’s new Rules of Procedure will enter into force from January 1, 2019.

Political assessments: opposition says its role curbed

Deputy Parliament Speaker Tamar Chugoshvili, who authored the document, said the new rules of procedure will make the legislative process “more dynamic and more interesting.” “We expect more frequent visits of government officials to the Parliament, as well as a significantly improved lawmaking process,” the Deputy Speaker noted.

Hopes for the new document are lower in the opposition.

MP Sergi Kapanadze of the European Georgia said under the new regulations, “opposition and parliamentary factions will no longer be able to summon ministers.” “The new document has actually left the opposition functionless; it deprived us of the opportunity to ask normal questions and enter into discussion with government members,” he told Civil.ge.

Kapanadze added that the ruling party rejected the idea of political debates and did not take the opposition’s recommendations into consideration. “In these circumstances, it would not be right to attend the sitting and create an illusion of participation [in the discussions]… They have actually tailored the Rules of Procedure to themselves,” he added.

MP Roman Gotsiridze of the United National Movement stressed some articles of the new Rules of Procedure, including on inviting ministers to the Parliament, could be assessed positively, but at the same time there are “worsened” provisions, including the one on removing the right of parliamentary factions to summon ministers.

“The role of parliamentary factions as part of the political system has been diminished, and this has also diminished the role of the opposition; only committees will now be able to summon ministers and if the opposition does not have enough members in the committees, it means only the majority group will enjoy this right,” the lawmaker told Civil.ge.

“So, it turns out that they are creating favorable conditions for the government by avoiding hard questions from the opposition,” Gotsiridze added.

Q&A: Human Rights Protection under Occupation

Fri, 12/07/2018 - 18:03

Several weeks ago, the Russian armed forces stationed in Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia renewed installation of wire fences along the occupation line. Weeks before, a new Russian-language school was opened in Akhalgori. Few days ago, the Tskhinvali authorities also shut down crossing points to prohibit local residents from voting in the Presidential polls.

The Government of Georgia has described these restrictions as continuation of gross human rights violations, and has vowed to use international legal mechanisms to ease the rights situation of local residents.

To find out what measures are available and whether the authorities are doing enough to protect the rights of the local Georgian populations in Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia, we have approached Dr. Saba Pipia of Tbilisi State University, who teaches international humanitarian law and international criminal law at the Faculty of Law.

What is occupation?

Under its conventional meaning, as accepted in international law, occupation happens only in cases when the occupying power physically captures and takes over a certain territory, replacing the previous ruler and establishing its own authority. The Russian Federation has argued that its presence in Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions does not amount to occupation, as it has not established a distinct Russian authority in the two territories, and has not replaced the acting rulers. However, the conventional approach has been changed recently; under the contemporary law on occupation, the territory is considered occupied even in the circumstances, when the de facto local authorities, which hold the territory under their effective control, are overly controlled by the alien state. This very alien power is regarded as an occupant.

Are Georgian territories occupied under this interpretation?

Under international law, the Russian Federation is an occupant power, whereas proxy governments of Sokhumi and Tskhinvali are entities acting under the de facto control of Russia. Consequently, the responsibility to ensure safety and welfare of local population primarily rests on the Russian Federation.

Actions, taken by the de facto governments of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region, which are encouraged or disinclined by the Russian Federation, indeed invoke international legal responsibility. Such actions are: complete ban on receiving education in Georgian language, which firstly became effective in the Georgian secondary schools of Gali and more recently also in Akhalgori district; or preventing people from voting in the elections.

Does the civilian population living in the occupied territories enjoy the right to receive education in native language?

The Fourth Geneva Convention (related to the protection of civilian population) deals with the right to education in occupied territories. The Convention imposes obligation on occupying power to facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children, with cooperation of national and local authorities. Schools are, certainly, implied under these institutions, while their “proper working” means that the occupying authorities are bound not only to avoid interfering with their activities, but also to support them actively and even encourage them to pursue their activities as they did before. This encompasses the obligation of the Russian Federation to ensure that inhabitants of the occupied territories are given possibility to get general education in their own language.

The right to receive education in own language is also guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights, which applies to the entire territory of Georgia, including the regions of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali. Moreover, the European Court of Human Rights contemplated that the right to education also embeds unhindered opportunity to study in the alphabet of own language. In Katan and Others v. Moldova and Russia (para.144), the Court held that the language policy, applied by the Transnistrian authorities, was intended to enforce the Russification of the language and culture of the Moldovan community living in this region; and this policy violated European Convention on Human Rights and gave rise to the responsibility of Russian Federation for the actions of de facto government of Transnistria, which was acting under the direct control of the Russian Federation.

Furthermore, the Court in the inter-state dispute concerning the case Cyprus v. Turkey (paras. 273-280) maintained that denial to receive secondary education in Greek language for Greek Cypriots living in the occupied northern part of the island, was a breach of Convention, since pupils, who had already gone through basic education through the medium of Greek language were not able to pursue secondary education due to the restrictions set by the de facto authorities of Northern Cyprus. For this reason, parents had to transfer their children to the south, in the non-occupied part of the island, or to continue their education at Turkish or English-language schools in the north.

With regard to Transnistria, the European Court of Human Rights, in the case Illascu and Others v. Moldova and Russia (para. 331) has developed an approach, pursuant to which the Republic of Moldova may also be held responsible for human rights violations in this territory if it does not comply with obligation, to secure the rights and freedoms to everyone living within its jurisdiction; this obligation is, however, limited in the circumstances to a positive obligation to take the diplomatic, economic, judicial or other measures that are both in its power to take and in accordance with international law.

Can the occupant power prohibit population from participating in the election held in the non-occupied part of the country?

Whereas military interests of the occupant are concerned, it is high likely that it will limit political activities of the population in order to prevent resistance through political means. Broad interpretation of Article 43 of the Hague Regulations permits the occupant to do so in circumstances of occupation, but the occupying power is not allowed to impose restrictions on participation or political campaigning in the non-occupied part of the country (in case of partial occupation). Article 42 of the Hague Regulations clearly indicates that occupation extends only to the territory where authority has been established and can be exercised. Therefore, preventing people from voting in the non-occupied parts of the country contravenes the spirit of the occupation law and should be considered illegal, because the occupant power is not entitled to ban political activities outside the occupied territory. Thus, decisions by the de facto authorities to prevent people residing in the occupied territories from voting in the elections held in the Tbilisi-controlled territory are unlawful and void.

What kind of obligations are imposed on the Government of Georgia in terms of securing the human rights of civilians living in the occupied territories?

The Government of Georgia, like the Moldovan authorities do share positive obligation to secure human rights protection of persons residing in occupied territories. Honoring this obligation would imply raising awareness regarding violations of fundamental rights of ethnic Georgians at international fora in order to mobilize the international community and to prevent illegal actions [which are condoned or neglected by Russian Federation] of de facto authorities through diplomatic pressure. At the Geneva talks format, the Georgian Government has been actively pressing on humanitarian issues, including the human rights situation of Georgians living in Gali and Akhalgori districts, but the negotiation process has not produced any tangible outcomes so far. Moreover, in the inter-state proceedings at the ECtHR concerning the case Georgia v. Russia (II), Georgia asserts that the Russian Federation has continuously breached rights (inter alia, right to education) of ethnic Georgians living in occupied territory; judgment of the Court is pending.  At the same time, it is vitally important to raise the issue of discrimination and harassment of ethnic Georgians living in Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions within relevant United Nations agencies. Annually, the so-called “return of IDPs” resolution is being adopted by the UN General Assembly with more and more supporters voting in favor. The issue can be raised at other discussion formats of the General Assembly. It could also fall under the jurisdiction of the UN Court, which may be requested by the General Assembly to deliver advisory opinion on the status of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions and the state of human rights situation there. This however would require launch of a broad advocacy campaign by the Georgian Government. It is worth noting that the first attempt to discuss the situation in occupied territories at the International Court of Justice has not ended successfully since the proceedings at the Court have been terminated as the Court declared the case inadmissible and did not proceed to its merits.

The de facto authorities have also limited the residence rights of locals living in the occupied territories, most notably in Abkhazia. What measures can the Georgian Government take to address the problem?

Consistent and effective steps by the Georgian Government is a matter of urgency since the presence of a whole Georgian community happens to be at stake. The decision significantly worsens the rights situation of Georgians living in Abkhazia; it will cause additional problems for freedom of movement and safe living. Without a doubt, the decision aims to forcibly change the demographic composition of the region. By refusing to take Abkhaz citizenship (or permanent residence), inhabitants of Gali district would face serious problems in crossing the occupation line.

The Fourth Geneva Convention outlaws forcible deportation or transfer of protected persons from the occupied territory. Such forcible expulsion also includes the case of protected persons belonging to ethnic or political minorities who might have suffered discrimination or persecution on that account and might therefore wish to leave the country. Stemming from this, discriminatory measures (including issuing of the so called residence permits) – taken by the authorities in Sokhumi – the primary objective of which is to suppress the Georgian population, might effectively be considered as de facto forcible transfer, which constitutes grave breach of the Geneva Conventions and is declared as war crime under the Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute).

What obligations may be imposed on Georgian authorities in relation to investigation and prosecution of crimes committed in the occupied territories?

Before the cases go to international judicial bodies, it is critically important to have proceedings at national level – for Georgian law enforcement bodies to launch investigations on crimes committed in the occupied territories, with the aim to prosecute alleged perpetrators, notwithstanding the possibility for them to stand for trial personally. Such gesture from the domestic courts of Georgia would largely contribute to restoration of justice and recognition of violation of victims’ rights.