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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
Syndicate content Civil.ge
news. nuance. context.
Updated: 2 hours 5 min ago

PM Bakhtadze on Reasons for Sacking Economy Minister

4 hours 26 min ago

Civil.ge

At a press briefing on April 19, Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze spoke briefly of reasons for dismissing the Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development, Giorgi Kobulia.

Speaking to reporters, PM Bakhtadze said Kobulia, “an experienced economist and professional financier,” elaborated important development strategies for Georgia “which we will use in the future.”

The PM stressed, however, that the Ministry of Economy necessitates quick and effective decision-making. “We need quick decisions that serve the interests of our society and our entrepreneurs,” he noted.

PM Bakhtadze dismissed the media reports that Kobulia left the office in bad terms with the Prime Minister. He said the two met before the decision was announced and that “there were no problems about it.”

Bakhtadze spoke on the new minister as well, saying Natia Turnava is “a high-level professional with serious experience” in private and public sectors, and that he is convinced “she will cope with her responsibilities successfully.” The PM also underlined that Turnava has “a right sense of the country’s socio-economic situation.”

Asked if there may be other cabinet changes in the coming future, the Prime Minister said: “If any of the ministers fail to keep up the pace, which is necessary for delivering of what we have promised to our population, we will definitely take such steps, [but] at this point, no other changes are planned.”

Giorgi Kobulia was one of the three new ministers nominated into PM Bakhtadze’s cabinet in July 2018. While his resignation has long been rumored, precise reasons for resignation were not named.

The decision came a week after Georgian Dream leader Bidzina Ivanishvili said PM Mamuka Bakhtadze’s cabinet works “effectively,” but “there may be some questions about individual ministers.”

The post PM Bakhtadze on Reasons for Sacking Economy Minister appeared first on Civil.ge.

Meeting Putin, Estonia’s Kaljulaid Raises Georgia

5 hours 14 min ago

Civil.ge

President of Estonia Kersti Kaljulaid, who was visiting Moscow on April 18, raised the matters related to Georgia and Ukraine, as she spoke about the conflicts in the two countries during the meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Kaljulaid later told Moscow-based Kommersant newspaper that the two presidents disagree about these issues, but she stressed that Estonia, as the European Union member, “fully supports” European mechanism of sanctions, as well as territorial integrity of Georgia and Ukraine. 

 

Met with President of Russia @KremlinRussia_E Vladimir Putin today: better to talk to each other rather than about each other. Even if we know that we agree to disagree on several principle issues, two neighbors always have common issues to resolve and interests to pursue. pic.twitter.com/NWH9hxkfyI

— Kersti Kaljulaid (@KerstiKaljulaid) April 18, 2019

On the question, what exactly Putin and Kaljulaid discussed on Georgia “where the conflict has long been frozen,” the Estonian President responded that “Georgia has a new president now and we discussed what can be done.”

Estonia seeks a seat of a non-permanent member at the UN Security Council, which has been the primary reason for Kaljulaid’s visit to Moscow.

Context: Kersti Kaljulaid: Georgia’s New President Should be Able to Unite People

The post Meeting Putin, Estonia’s Kaljulaid Raises Georgia appeared first on Civil.ge.

Georgia’s Foreign Trade in January-March 2019

7 hours 47 min ago

Civil.ge

Georgia’s foreign trade turnover in the first three months of 2019 decreased by 0.1%, compared to the same period last year, amounting to USD 2.8 billion, according to the preliminary figures released by the National Statistics Office, Geostat, on April 19.

Exports from Georgia were up by 12.8% year-on-year to USD 826 million, and imports were down by 4.7% y/y to USD 2 billion in January-March. The trade gap stood at USD 1.2 billion.

Trade turnover with the European Union (EU) member states stood at USD 698.1 million, which is a 14.9% decrease over the same period of last year. Exports from Georgia to the EU-member states decreased by 6.4% y/y to USD 196 million, while imports constituted USD 502.2 million, which is 17.8% lower than last year.

Trade turnover with the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) increased by 2.4% y/y to USD 992.2 million. Georgia’s exports to CIS countries were up by 37.4% y/y to USD 416.1 million and imports decreased by 13.5% to USD 576.1 million.

Turkey remains Georgia’s largest trading partner with USD 373.3 million in January-March of 2019, followed by Russia, Azerbaijan, China and Ukraine with USD 327 million, USD 272.5 million, USD 257.1 million and USD 136.7 million, respectively.

They are followed by Armenia with trade turnover of USD 135.2 million; United States – USD 134.4 million; Germany – USD 105.5 million; Bulgaria – USD 97.7 million; Romania – USD 90.8 million.

Russia tops the list of largest trading partners by exports with USD 135.4 million, followed by Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Armenia and Ukraine with USD 84.9 million, USD 68.1 million, USD 63.1 million and USD 62.3 million, respectively.

Turkey, China, Russia, Azerbaijan and United States are the top trading partners of Georgia in terms of imports with USD 316 million, USD 221.8 million, USD 191.7 million, USD 187.6 million and USD 94 million, respectively.

Copper ores and concentrates are on top of the list of export commodities with USD 135.6 million, followed by re-export of cars – USD 99.1 million; ferroalloys – USD 95.6 million; medicines – USD 52.4 million; wine – USD 49 million; nitrogen fertilizers – USD 35.4 million; mineral waters – USD 29.8 million; spirits – USD 26 million; cigarettes – USD 20.3 million; gold – USD 16.6 million; other commodities – USD 266.4 million.

Petroleum and petroleum oils are on top of the list of import commodities with USD 150.4 million, followed by petroleum gases – USD 131.5 million; copper ores and concentrates – USD 120.2 million; cars – USD 119 million; medicines – USD 89.3 million; mobile and other wireless phones – USD 39 million; electricity – USD 23 million; wheat – USD 22.8 million; tires – USD 22.4 million; cigarettes – USD 16.9 million; other commodities – USD 1.2 billion.

The post Georgia’s Foreign Trade in January-March 2019 appeared first on Civil.ge.

Turnava Tapped New Economy Minister

Thu, 04/18/2019 - 22:49

Civil.ge

Georgian Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze appointed today Natia Turnava as the new Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development, sacking Giorgi Kobulia, who served from July 2018.

Turnava, 49, who is promoted from the post of the Deputy Minister of Economy, had worked as the Deputy CEO of the Partnership Fund in 2013-2018. She also did a stint as the deputy minister of economy back in 2000-2005, and briefly as Deputy Secretary of the National Security Council in May-September 2005. She has been the Board Member of the influential Georgian Industrial Group (GIG) in 2006-2013.

Giorgi Kobulia was one of the three new ministers nominated into PM Bakhtadze’s cabinet. While his resignation has long been rumored, precise reasons for resignation were not named. Doorstepped by the media earlier today, he could not confirm departure from the functions. It is expected, that PM Bakhtadze might shed some light on this matter tomorrow, before the cabinet meeting.

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UN Ambassadors Meet President Zurabishvili, Visit Occupation Line

Thu, 04/18/2019 - 18:28

Civil.ge

President Salome Zurabishvili received permanent representatives from the Dominican Republic, Eswatini, Finland, Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia and Senegal to the United Nations. The Ambassadors are visiting Georgia on April 14-21.

According to Zurabishvili’s press office, the ambassadors were briefed on Georgia’s EU integration process, as well as on the human rights and security situation in the occupied regions of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia.

Meeting today with @FinlandUN

Family Says Investigation into Ia Kerzaia’s Death Not Effective

Thu, 04/18/2019 - 16:35

Civil.ge

The family of Ia Kerzaia, the late principal of Public School N6 in Zugdidi, who was reportedly pressured to join the Presidential campaign of Salome Zurabishvili, claims investigation into her death is ineffective.

The announcement was made by Bachana Shengelia, the son of Ia Kerzaia, after his meeting with the investigators on April 18. Shengelia was invited at the Chief Prosecutor’s Office to get acquainted with the case materials.

Speaking to reporters after the meeting, Shengelia said “all the doubts that we have had about the investigation being led the wrong way and being ineffective, have been confirmed entirely.”

“We saw that the main case participant – Education Minister Mikheil Batiashvili – has not been questioned; instead, they have interviewed those who had no information on the crime, including school cleaners,” he added.

He said the investigators have also not questioned heads of the Audit Department and the Inspection Service of the Education Ministry, as well as the director of the Educational Center in Zugdidi. He also stressed the main witnesses – inspectors, who carried out the inspection shortly before Kerzaia’s death, were interviewed only in mid-April.

Earlier today, Shengelia and his lawyer, Levan Makharashvili convened a press briefing as well. Shengelia stressed there are “unprecedented facts” proving that the authorities are obstructing the investigation.

Shengelia noted that the National Forensics Bureau rejected his request for forensic examination twice, citing lack of time on the first occasion, and failure by the Ministry of Healthcare to assign an expert on the second.

“Four months have passed and none of the government officials suspected of committing offenses in the case have been fired or suspended; the main participant – Mikheil Batiashvili – has maintained his post as well,” he added.

“All of these factors in combination, allows us to conclude that the Ministry of Healthcare, the National Forensics Bureau, government officials and the Chief Prosecutor’s Office are acting in concert to fabricate the case and hinder the investigation,” Shengelia noted.

Two inspectors from the Ministry of Education carried out an inspection in the Public School N6 in Zugdidi in November 2018, between the first and the second rounds of Presidential elections.

Kerzaia’s family claims the inspection was approved after the school principal refused to cooperate with the authorities and join the campaign of the ruling party-endorsed candidate, Salome Zurabishvili.

The inspectors released their conclusion two weeks later, recommending the school’s governing board to dismiss the principal. Kerzaia was hospitalized with a stroke on December 2, and died couple of days later. The family claims her health condition worsened as a result of pressure.

ISFED, a Tbilisi-based election watchdog, said the circumstances surrounding the death of Ia Kerzaia raise doubts that the inspection “was selective and discriminatory on political grounds.”

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Watchdog: Georgian media pluralist but not yet independent

Thu, 04/18/2019 - 12:14

Civil.ge

Georgia’s press freedom score has declined in 2018 over the previous year, according to the 2019 World Press Freedom Index, a study by the Paris-based watchdog group Reporters Without Borders.

2019 World Press Freedom Index is a country-by-country survey on the level of freedom available to journalists and covers developments of 2018.

Georgia, according to the survey, is ranked 60th in the table of 180 countries with 28.98 points. Last year, Georgia had 27.34 points and was placed 61st.

The index rankings are based on a scale of 1 to 100, with 0 representing the highest and 100 the lowest level of press freedom.

None of the countries in the former Soviet Union (except Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) are ranked ahead of Georgia. Armenia and Georgia are tied with 28.98 points, but the former is ranked 61st.

Report assessments

“Georgia’s media landscape is pluralist but still very polarized. The reforms of recent years have brought improvements in media ownership transparency and satellite TV pluralism, but owners often still call the shots on editorial content,” the organization said in its index-related assessment on Georgia.

The Reporters Without Borders then noted that the “outcome of the continuing dispute” over ownership of Rustavi 2, “the main national opposition TV channel,” would “therefore have a big impact.”

“Violence against journalists is less frequent although threats are often reported,” the organization added.

It also touched upon the case of Afgan Mukhtarli, saying the Azerbaijani journalist’s “mysterious abduction” in Tbilisi in 2017 and his reappearance in police custody in Azerbaijan, “was shocking for Georgians, who have traditionally offered a refuge to dissidents from neighboring countries.”

The investigation “has yet to produce any convincing results,” according to the assessment.

The organization compiles its annual survey based on several criteria measuring pluralism, media independence, media environment and self-censorship, legislative framework, transparency, and the quality of the infrastructure that supports the production of news and information.

The degree of freedom is determined by pooling the responses of experts to a questionnaire devised by the Reporters Without Borders. This qualitative analysis is then combined with quantitative data on abuses and acts of violence against journalists during the period evaluated.

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Government to Help Prep Abkhazia, Tskhinvali Region Graduates for Universities

Wed, 04/17/2019 - 17:58

Civil.ge

The Government of Georgia has launched a new university preparations program for school graduates from Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions, which will ease their enrollment at universities in the Tbilisi-controlled territory.

The new program was elaborated within Tbilisi’s earlier-announced peace plan – A Step to A Better Future – and will be administered by the Ministry of Reconciliation and the Ministry of Education.

As part of the new program, aspiring students from the occupied regions will go through year-long preparations course for university admissions. They will be based at Tbilisi State University and Zugdidi State University.

To secure their eventual enrollment at respective universities, students will have to pass two exams; one in the Georgian language, and another one in a subject that is required by the department where they wish to enroll.

Students will not have to go through the Basic Skills Test, a compulsory examination for all aspiring students that gauges verbal, analytical and mathematical aptitudes. Basic Skills is taught as a separate subject at public schools in the Tbilisi-controlled territory, but not in the occupied areas, rendering it difficult for school graduates from there to compete with their counterparts from other parts of the country.

“The program is designed for residents of the occupied territories, to ease their access to education in subjects that they are not taught there, as well as to ease their enrollment at universities,” said Reconciliation Minister Ketevan Tsikhelashvili at a presentation on April 17 held at Tbilisi State University.

More on the admissions exams system in Georgia can be found here.

According to the Ministry of Reconciliation, the pilot project will run from mid-April through mid-July, and will be at full swing beginning from September, 2019. The Ministry specified that the program will be fully funded, and that participants will be provided with housing and a monthly stipend of GEL 150.

It also reported that out of 142 registered program participants, 140 are from Gali district in Abkhazia, and the remaining two are from Akhalgori district in Tskhinvali Region (Gali and Akhalgori are predominantly populated by ethnic Georgians). 70 program participants will be based at Tbilisi State University and 72 at Zugdidi State University.

In 2018, a total of 146 school graduates from Abkhazia and Tskhinvali regions enrolled at universities in the Tbilisi-controlled territory. Students from the occupied territories are eligible for tuition funding.

In recent years, Georgian schools remaining in Gali and Akhalgori were gradually moved to Russian-language teaching, a move that has angered Tbilisi and the international community.

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In Quotes: Politicians, CSOs on Venice Commission Opinion

Wed, 04/17/2019 - 17:41

Civil.ge

Georgian politicians and civil society organizations have commented on the opinion of the Venice Commission on the selection and appointment of judges of the Supreme Court of Georgia.

Civil.ge offers you these press remarks:

Ruling party assessments

Irakli Kobakhidze, Parliament Speaker: “The Venice Commission gave positive assessment to the amendments introduced in the law [on Common Courts]. It gives a number of key recommendations. My position is that a great part of the recommendations can be accepted, including the recommendations based on the demands of our political opponents, including on removal of judicial examination from the selection criteria, as well as the recommendation related to the conflict of interests. We will hold meetings with the stakeholders, including international partners, government officials and representatives of political parties and CSOs, to discuss the Venice Commission recommendations. We will also convene a majority meeting, where I will try to convince my colleagues of what I may not be fully on board with, but I will try to convince them of the necessity of accepting some of these recommendations. As for political recommendations (referring to the recommendation that further appointments may be made after the next Parliamentary polls), we will definitely discuss them, but this type of recommendations will not be reflected in the draft law.”

Mamuka Mdinaradze, leader of the parliamentary majority: “The opinion is positive, regardless of the criticism we have heard during the last few months. The few points that were included in the recommendations have nothing to do with the spirit of alternative bills. There are only few proposals, and I do not think that any of them cannot be accepted.”

Anri Okhanashvili, chair of the Legal Issues Committee: “This is a very important assessment. Our draft bill is in full compliance with the CoE recommendations – and this was positively assessed by the Venice Commission. This means that fundamental issues were assessed positively.”

Opposition assessments

Salome Samadashvili, the United National Movement: “The incumbent Parliament should not appoint the judges to all vacancies that are open in the Supreme Court. The Venice Commission points out clearly that under this Parliament, the ruling majority will not appoint independent judges in the Supreme Court. The commission assesses the government’s policy towards the judiciary negatively.”

Otar Kakhidze, European Georgia: “Trust towards the High Council of Justice is low based on the information that was provided to the Venice Commission. Therefore, they called on the authorities that this Parliament should not compose the Supreme Court and at least one half of judges should be elected by the next Parliament. This answers all of our questions, that the High Council of Justice is discredited and that the Parliament should not be mandated to appoint all judges. This is probably the key issue in this conclusion.”

Eka Beselia, independent lawmaker: “This conclusion is a real slap in the face of the ruling party; it is impossible to criticize the draft more sharply than it is in the Venice Commission opinion. When the Venice Commission tells you that the High Council of Justice enjoys low public trust and the Parliament should not elect all judges now and some of them should be elected by the next Parliament, this means that neither the HCoJ, nor the Parliament enjoy any trust.”

CSO assessments

Sulkhan Saladze, Georgian Young Lawyers Association: “I hope the ruling party will read what is actually written in the document, and will not try to mislead the public and label the recommendations as politically-motivated.”

Giorgi Mshvenieradze, Georgian Democracy Initiative: “This conclusion is very critical of the government. The government has been trying to portray its bill as unprecedentedly transparent, but the Venice Commission opinion highlighted that it contains a lot of fundamental problems.”

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Parliament Weekly: April 8-12

Wed, 04/17/2019 - 17:07

Civil.ge

Parliament’s extraordinary plenary session

By decree of the President of Georgia, an extraordinary plenary session of the Parliament was held on April 8 where MPs continued hearing of President of the National Bank of Georgia (NBG), Koba Gvenetadze.

At the session, lawmakers also voted in favor of the amendments to the Law on General Education, envisaging the abolition of school graduation exams.

Committee hearings
  • Legal Issues Committee

On April 11, the Legal Issues Committee deliberated, among other issues, on the package of amendments to the Organic Law of Georgia on Common Courts with its first hearing. The package was initiated by independent MP Eka Beselia and 12 more lawmakers.

MP Eka Beselia explained that the bill aims at establishing an independent and effective justice system and improving the procedures of election of the Supreme Court judges. The committee members did not support the bill.

  • Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee

On April 11, the Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee deliberated, among other issues, on the ruling majority-initiated package of amendments to the Labor Code of Georgia. The bill aims at regulating the issue of sexual harassment in labor relations.

In addition, along with defining sexual harassment in public places, the bill envisages sanctions once the fact of sexual harassment is established.

  • Legal Issues and Human Rights Committees

On April 11, the bill on ownership of agricultural lands was discussed at a joint sitting of the Committees for Legal Issues and for Human Rights and Civil Integration. The bill was presented by MP Otar Danelia, chair of the Agrarian Issues Committee. He explained that the bill aims to establish property rights to an agricultural land with full observance of public and private interests; to promote the state policy on sustainable land management; to protect national security policy and develop local farming.

According to the initiated amendments, an agricultural land may be owned by the state, autonomous republic, municipality, legal entity of public law, Georgian citizen, legal entity of private law registered in Georgia on condition that a Georgian citizen or any above mentioned entity is a dominant partner.

According to the bill, a dominant partner shall mean a partner or group of partners of a legal entity of private law registered in Georgia, who owns over 50% of shares and/or represents the majority of partners or founders/members and has a practical possibility to decisively influence the legal entity’s decision.

Considering the remarks voiced at the hearing, the committees decided to discuss the bill at a plenary session.

The bill initiated by 32 lawmakers on amendments to the Labor Code of Georgia and to the Law on Accumulative Pension was also discussed at the same sitting. The bill was presented by one of its sponsors, MP Beka Natsvlishvili. The committee members did not support the package of amendments.

Visits
  • On April 8, Georgian Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze attended the 140th IPU Assembly on “Parliament as the Platform to Enhance Education for Peace, Security and the Rule of Law” in Doha. As part of his visit, Speaker Kobakhidze met Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, discussing bilateral and multilateral relations. It was decided in Doha that in 2020, Georgia will host the 7th Global Conference of Young Parliamentarians.
  • On April 8-12, the parliamentary delegation led by First Vice Speaker, Tamar Chugoshvili visited Strasbourg to participate in the spring session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE). As part of her visit, Chugoshvili met with PACE President, Liliane Maury Pasquier; Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Thorbjørn Jagland; Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Dunja Mijatović, as well as PACE Co-rapporteurs on Georgia.
  • On April 10, Anri Okhanashvili, Chair of the Legal Issues Committee, Sophio Kiladze, Chair of the Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee, and Giorgi Kakhiani, Chair of the Procedural Issues and Rules Committee, visited Germany upon invitation of the German Foundation for International Legal Cooperation (IRZ). As part of the visit, the Georgian delegation met with Chair of the G10 Commission, Andreas Schmidt, as well as German counterparts.
  • On April 10, OSCE PA held a bureau meeting in Denmark presided by Georgian MP, OSCE PA President Gigi Tsereteli. OSCE Secretary General Thomas Greminger and President of Albania, Ilir Meta also participated in the sitting. According to the Georgian Parliament’s press office, Tsereteli raised the issue of reflecting the crimes committed in the occupied regions and the human rights situation of locals in the OSCE resolution.
  • On April 10, the parliamentary delegation led by Chair of the Defense and Security Committee, Irakli Sesiashvili held meetings in Geneva with the representatives of the UNHCR, IMO and IPU.
  • On April 11, Irine Pruidze, member of the Georgian Parliament’s permanent delegation, addressed the PACE spring session. MP Nino Goguadze of the parliamentary majority also addressed the session, focusing on Russia’s occupation of its neighboring countries and violation of CoE principles by it.
  • On April 12, Sophio Katsarava, Chair of the Foreign Relations Committee, who paid a working visit to the United States, met with Senator Roger Wicker and discussed Georgia-U.S close bilateral relations, reforms implemented by Georgia on its path towards NATO integration, Georgia’s sovereignty, situation in the occupied regions and deepening of inter-parliamentary relations.
  • On April 12-14, Head of the Parliamentary Delegation to NATO PA, Chair of the Defense and Security Committee Irakli Sesiashvili participated in the NATO PA 99th Rose-Roth Seminar in Turkey.
Meetings
  • On April 10, Chair of the Sports and Youth Issues Committee, Mikheil Kavelashvili held an introductory meeting with the newly appointed Ambassador of Swiss Confederation, H.E. Patrick Franzen. According to the Parliament’s press office, the parties discussed Georgia-Switzerland parliamentary cooperation and Swiss investments to Georgia.
  • On April 10, Chair of the Diaspora and Caucasus Issues Committee, Beka Odisharia met with Chief of International Organization for Migration (IOM) Mission to Georgia, Sanja Celebic Lukovac. According to the Parliament’s press office, the sides discussed future cooperation plans.
  • On April 12, First Deputy Chair of the Defense and Security Committee, Irakli Beraia met NATO Liaison Officer in Georgia, Rosaria Puglisi to discuss NATO-Georgia cooperation mechanisms.
  • On April 12, First Vice Speaker Tamar Chugoshvili participated in the event World in Turbulence: Challenges and Advantages held within the Young Global Leaders’ Summit of the World Economic Forum. According to the Parliament’s press office, Chugoshvili touched upon the challenges facing Georgia, as well as the country’s global role and importance. She named Russia and the problem of occupation as Georgia’s primary challenge.
Other events
  • April 9

Georgian lawmakers commemorated the tragedy of April 9, 1989, when Soviet special forces dispersed peaceful protesters on Rustaveli Avenue in Tbilisi, killing 16 on the spot and fatally wounding 4 more, who have succumbed to their injuries in the hospital.

30 years have passed since the tragic events of April 9.

  • The Parliament’s chamber of plenary sessions named after Zviad Gamsakhurdia

Paying an official visit to Doha on April 9, Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze offered to name the chamber of plenary sessions after Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Georgia’s first President.

  • Zurab Zhvania’s commemorative star plaque placed in Strasbourg

On April 10, a star plaque commemorating late Georgian Prime Minister Zurab Zhvania was opened in front of the Council of Europe headquarters in Strasbourg.

His famous phrase “I am Georgian, therefore I am European” are also inscribed in the star. Zhvania said these words at the PACE session after the Assembly supported Georgia’s accession to the Council of Europe.

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Georgian, Cypriot Presidents Discuss Deepening Bilateral Ties

Wed, 04/17/2019 - 14:30

Civil.ge

President of Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades is paying a visit to Georgia on April 16-18. Today, he met with his Georgian counterpart, Salome Zurabishvili, discussing deepening bilateral ties

The two presidents held a meeting, which was followed by joint press statements at the old presidential residence in Avlabari district in Tbilisi.

At the meeting, President Zurabishvili said this visit is important since this is the first time the Cypriot leader visits Georgia, marking “a new page” in the two countries’ relations.

#Cyprus

Venice Commission Opinion on Appointment of Supreme Court Judges

Wed, 04/17/2019 - 14:15

Civil.ge

The Venice Commission, the Council of Europe’s (CoE) advisory body for legal affairs, released on April 16 its opinion on the selection and appointment of judges of the Supreme Court of Georgia.

The request for an urgent opinion was made by the Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia, Irakli Kobakhidze, after political controversies and public criticism that followed the presentation of a ten-member list of candidates to the Parliament by the High Council of Justice, the body overseeing the judiciary.

More specifically, the Venice Commission was asked to evaluate three amendments bills containing the provisions on the selection and appointment of Supreme Court judges, including the main text – the ruling party-proposed amendments to the Law on Common Courts, passed on first reading on March 20, 2019.

Judges of the Supreme Court, the final instance court in the country, are nominated by the High Council of Justice and elected for lifetime tenure (until retirement) by a majority of all the Members of Parliament. The Court has 11 judges now, and should be composed of at least 28 judges, according to the new constitution. What does the endorsed draft say?
  • Selection procedures

Georgian citizen who is older than 30, with advanced level of legal education and relevant work experience, is eligible to be nominated to the Supreme Court. The “relevant experience” is interpreted to include: incumbent and former judges with more than five years of tenure; those former judges who have stopped practicing less than ten years ago; experts of law with five years of work experience, who have passed the qualification exams to become judges.

  • Nomination procedures

The High Council of Justice (HCoJ) announces a competition to select the candidates. After receiving the applications, it posts the list of eligible applicants and their biographies on HCoJ official website.

To arrive at the long-list of candidates, HCoJ takes the first – secret – ballot. Those selected then pass public interviews with HCoJ. Another secret vote takes place to further reduce the number of candidates.

The list of the finalists is then made public. The HCoJ then votes to submit the candidates to the Parliament, for final approval. A candidate must get at least two thirds of the HCoJ members vote, to be submitted to the Parliament.

What does the Venice Commission say?

The Venice Commission welcomes the amendments on the selection and appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court, but highlights a number of areas where further improvements are needed.

  • General recommendations

According to the document, the Venice Commission was informed during its meetings in Tbilisi that the HCoJ “enjoys a fairly low trust by a large segment of society at the moment.”

The Commission said it is “in no position” to evaluate the merits of such allegations, but noted that “the fact that the HCoJ – in its current situation – will be selecting nearly all the candidates for judges of the Supreme Court, producing a list which will then be submitted to a political majority in Parliament (in between elections), which in turn will appoint nearly all the Supreme Court judges, should be a matter of concern.”

To alleviate these concerns and ensure continuity in the work of the Supreme Court, the Venice Commission suggests transforming the fixed term of office of the current Supreme Court judges to lifetime appointments.

It also recommends appointing the number of new judges that is “absolutely necessary to render the work of the Supreme Court manageable.” According to the opinion, the number of judges to be added should be decided in consultation with the Supreme Court, but “should not exceed half of the 18 to 20 positions that will be vacant.”

The Commission also says further appointments may be made after the next Parliamentary elections.

  • Eligibility criteria

The Venice Commission says the draft law is “too lenient” with respect to the age and experience requirements, and suggests higher formal thresholds for both.

The Commission also points out that the eligibility criteria for non-judge candidates seems to be unduly restrictive, and recommends lifting the requirement for passing the judicial examination.

The Venice Commission believes, persons “of distinguished qualification in the field of law” should not be “forced to sit an examination to prove that they are capable of dealing with points of law.

  • Nomination procedures

The Commission says holding secret ballots for shortlisting the applicants and selecting the final list of nominees is the “principal difficulty” in the draft law. It calls for abolishing this rule.

It also suggests HCoJ members wishing to compete for vacant Supreme Court seats to be excluded from all procedures pertaining to the selection and nomination of candidates.

The opinion contains a number of other recommendations, including on the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The Commission says 10-year tenure “might be too long,” and should be reduced.

More information on the judicial appointments dispute can be found by following this link.

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Georgian, Bulgarian PMs Discuss Bilateral Ties, Black Sea Cooperation

Wed, 04/17/2019 - 11:57

Civil.ge

Georgian Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze paid a brief visit to Sofia on April 16, and held a meeting with his Bulgarian counterpart, Prime Minister Boyko Borissov, and President Rumen Radev.

According to the Georgian PM’s press office, Bakhtadze and Borissov pledged to deepen their countries’ bilateral and regional cooperation, including in the fields of trade, energy and transport connection.

At a joint press statement after the meeting, PM Bakhtadze said Georgia and Bulgaria share “a long history of traditionally close and friendly relations,” and “vibrant cooperation in many areas of common interest.”

“We are connected geographically: the Black Sea builds a natural bridge between us, offering unique opportunities and bearing huge potential that we are committed to exploit, especially in the fields of transport,” he said, adding that the sides paid “particular attention” to intensifying ferry corrections between Georgian and Bulgarian ports.

Prime Minister Bakhtadze also thanked the Bulgarian counterpart for his country’s “strong support” of Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as of its European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations.

Bulgaria support Georgia’s accession to #NATO and the #EU. #Georgia is important to us because it is across the #BlackSea and goods are brought there to be sent to #Bulgaria. pic.twitter.com/wYbZU1KkUC

— Boyko Borissov (@BoykoBorissov) April 16, 2019

The Bulgarian Prime Minister confirmed in his statement Sofia’s support of Georgia’s EU and NATO membership aspirations, and stressed the important transit role of Georgia in the Black Sea region.

PM Borissov also said in coming months, there will be a new fiber optic cable laid in the Black Sea from Bulgaria to Georgia, allowing countries of the region to use high-speed internet. He said there are investors from Georgia who are willing to finance the project.

Georgia’s trade turnover with Bulgaria, according to the National Statistics Office, Geostat, stood at USD 440.5 million in 2018, with exports at USD 258.9 million (USD 186.9 million in 2017) and imports at USD 181.6 million (USD 155.5 million in 2017). Bulgaria was Georgia’s ninth largest trading partner in 2018.

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Police to Tighten Road Safety Measures

Tue, 04/16/2019 - 17:50

Civil.ge

The Interior Ministry unveiled on April 16 a new road safety action plan for 2019, which includes a number of measures for tightening traffic enforcement on Georgia’s roads.

The new plan was presented by Interior Minister Giorgi Gakharia at a gathering today, in presence of government officials, lawmakers, and representatives of CSOs, international organizations and business communities.

Gakharia said with 459 traffic-related deaths in 2018, Georgia is a leader in the region. According to the Interior Minister, the corresponding figure for 2008-2018 stands at 6,608 fatalities, with 85,946 reported injuries.

Gakharia explained that most common causes of road accidents are overspeeding, lane driving violations, non-adherence to traffic signs, and drunken driving.

“This is our common problem… no single agency, be it the Interior Ministry, the Roads Department or the City Hall, will be able to address the problem alone; this is a challenge that needs to be addressed by all of us,” he noted.

He then briefed the attendees on the work of the Interior Ministry to that end, and outlined forthcoming changes.

Gakharia said, as of today over 2,600 traffic monitoring cameras are operational, a significant increase from 170 cameras in 2017. The Minister announced that by the end of 2019 around 5,000 traffic monitoring cameras will be operational, covering a total of 700 kilometers of road.

Gakharia also noted that the Interior Ministry established a special group that examines individual traffic accidents, for flagging high risk areas and devising solutions.

The Ministry also announced that by the end of the year the number of unmarked police cars monitoring the road traffic, will increase. He also said police vehicles will be equipped with automatic number-plate recognition systems, enabling the officers to intercept potential offenses.

The Interior Ministry is also planning to tighten sanctions for traffic violations.

The presentation dovetails Interior Ministry’s For More Life campaign, which features street posters and videos for safe driving. As part of the campaign, wrecked cars have been displayed on roadsides across the country.

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U.S. Congressmen Hold Meetings in Parliament, Reiterate Support to Georgia

Tue, 04/16/2019 - 16:05

Civil.ge

A bipartisan eight-member delegation from the United States House of Representatives is on a visit to Georgia on April 15–17 as part of the House Democracy Partnership (HDP), a bipartisan commission that works directly with partner countries around the world to support the development of effective legislatures.

The delegation is led by HDP Chairman, Congressman David Price (Dem.), and includes Co-Chair Vern Buchanan (Rep.), Dina Titus (Dem.), Michael Conaway (Rep.), Gerry Connolly (Dem.), Adrian Smith (Rep.), Barbara Lee (Dem.) and Terri Sewell (Dem.).

According to the U.S. Embassy to Georgia, the delegation visited the country “to discuss legislative methods, challenges, and current issues,” as well as to “examine governance issues and factors influencing good governance, including security, stability, and national defense.”

The House Democracy Partnership and the Parliament of Georgia have been working together since 2006. This trip marks the Commission’s 8th visit to Georgia.

Press statements

On April 16, the delegation met with Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze. At a joint press briefing with Congressmen Price and Buchanan, following their meeting, Speaker Kobakhidze said the Congressional visit is “yet another demonstration of our countries’ special relations.”

“U.S.-Georgia partnership is close and strategic, based not only on values, but also on concurrence of political interests in the region,” he said. “Our countries are interested in stability and peace in the region so that the countries of this region are able to make choices independently concerning their international and domestic orientation and development.”

The  Parliament Speaker also underlined that free trade agreement between the two countries would “create new opportunities for [enhancing] bilateral cooperation.”

In his remarks, Congressman Price said the Parliament of Georgia and the House of Representatives have “shared aspirations for democracy, [for] democracy that works, not just free and fair elections as important as they are, but democracy that works between elections.”

The Congressman also said with recent constitutional changes “it is even more clear” that the Parliament “is the first branch of government” in Georgia, and that it is “the first in the frontlines in terms of engaging with people all over the country and translating their aspirations, their hopes, [and] their dreams into policy.”

“We have lots of debates in U.S. Congress these days, but there is no debate about our commitment to democracy and our admiration for Georgia and Georgia’s struggle to establish Parliamentary democracy,” he added.

Today, the Congressional delegation will continue holding meetings with members of Parliamentary factions and committees. Tomorrow they will meet with government officials.

The Congressional visit to Georgia is part of a regional tour in Eastern Europe. The delegation arrived in Georgia from Ukraine. They are to travel to Armenia and Moldova next.

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Georgian Leaders Saddened by Notre-Dame Cathedral Fire

Tue, 04/16/2019 - 12:04

Civil.ge

Georgian leaders have expressed sadness over a massive fire that ravaged the spire of the historic Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris.

“I am paying close attention to the horrible fire happening at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris,” President Salome Zurabishvili wrote in her Twitter post. “Georgia stands with the people of France during this time,” she added.

I am paying close attention to the horrible fire happening at the #NotreDame Cathedral in Paris. Georgia stands with the people of #France during this time.

— Salome Zourabichvili (@Zourabichvili_S) April 15, 2019

Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze tweeted on the fire as well. “Shocked and saddened by the scope of devastation from Notre Dame’s catastrophic fire. Our thoughts remain with Paris and France during this difficult time,” he said.

Shocked and saddened by the scope of devastation from #NotreDame’s catastrophic fire. Our thoughts remain with #Paris and #France during this difficult time

— Mamuka Bakhtadze (@BakhtadzeMamuka) April 15, 2019

Foreign Minister Davit Zalkaliani wrote a Twitter post as well, saying he is saddened “to see one of the worlds fascinating, iconic Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris destroyed by fire.”

Sad to see one of the worlds fascinating, iconic #NorteDameCathedral de Paris destroyed by fire. We all remember its magnificent beauty. Writing about its architecture Hugo said – great buildings, like great mountains, are the work of centuries, thoughts written in stones pic.twitter.com/ECumkQuBKa

— David Zalkaliani (@DZalkaliani) April 16, 2019

A massive blaze hit the medieval Notre-Dame Cathedral on Monday evening, April 15, causing the spire and the roof of this historic building to crash to the ground.

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Georgian, Romanian Prime Ministers Pledge to Deepen Ties

Tue, 04/16/2019 - 11:19

Civil.ge

On April 15, Georgian Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze paid an official visit to Bucharest, where he met with his Romanian counterpart Viorica Dăncilă and discussed ways to enhance bilateral and regional cooperation.

At a joint press briefing following the meeting, PM Bakhtadze said Romania is “an outstanding partner” for Georgia, and that the two countries are connected with “special bonds.”

The PM also said political dialogue between Georgia and Romania is on “the highest level,” but added that the two countries still need to untap the economic potential of the Black Sea region.

“The Black Sea offers us unique opportunities to play greater role not only in the development of bilateral relations, but also in deepening of our economic relations with other countries,” Bakhtadze said, adding that the European and Euro-Atlantic security “cannot be imagined without security of the Black Sea region.”

PM Bakhtadze then stressed the importance of intensified cooperation between Georgian and Romanian ports, “particularly in light of the fact that we are building a deep sea port in Georgia, which will open up entirely new opportunities for economic cooperation.”

I had fruitful talks with @BakhtadzeMamuka, Prime Minister of Georgia. #Romania firmly supports #Georgia‘s European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations. The development of #EU relations with the Eastern partners is a priority of the @ro2019eu.

Georgian, Jordanian Speakers Discuss Bilateral, Regional Cooperation

Mon, 04/15/2019 - 16:46

Civil.ge

Head of the upper chamber of the Jordanian legislature, Senate President Faisal Al-Fayez, is on an official visit to Georgia on April 14-18. Today, he met with his Georgian counterpart, Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze.

According to the Parliament of Georgia, the two speakers highlighted “friendly” nature of Georgian-Jordanian relations, and discussed ways for deepening bilateral political and economic cooperation.

At a joint press statement that followed their meeting, Kobakhidze said “Jordan is one of the most important countries in the Middle East for Georgia.” “Jordan contributes to regional peace, stability and security, and is trying to find peaceful solutions to conflicts, decrease tensions and resolve issues related to refugees.”

“I would like to express my gratitude to the Jordanian Government and the Jordanian Parliament for their firm support of Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity,” Speaker Kobakhidze added.

In his press remarks, Faisal Al-Fayez said Georgia and Jordan have strong relations “built on mutual respect, close cooperation and agreement on a host of political positions.” “We are combating terrorism and extremism, working for political peaceful solutions for Middle East conflicts, so that the region would restore its peace and stability.”

He also stressed Jordan “fully respects and is firmly committed to Georgian independence, sovereignty, unity and integrity of the Georgian territory,” and considers Georgia as a partner in building peace in the Middle East.

I want to thank once again Faisal al-Fayez, President of the Senate of #Jordan

Zurabishvili Visits Samtskhe-Javakheti, Stresses Importance of Learning Georgian Language

Mon, 04/15/2019 - 15:22

Civil.ge

Georgian President Salome Zurabishvili visited Akhalkalaki, a town in the southern Georgian region of Samtskhe-Javakheti predominately populated by ethnic Armenians.

During her meeting with local residents, President Zurabishvili spoke about the necessity of integration of ethnic Armenians of Georgia, and the importance of the Georgian language to that end.

In Georgia’s 2014 population census, 168,100 people (4.5%) reported Armenian origin. In Samtskhe-Javakheti, they make 50.52% of the regional population (81,089). Ethnic Armenians form absolute majority in Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda municipalities.

“[Georgian] language is the key for strengthening [our] relations, for understanding and respecting each other… those who speak Georgian are able to take active part in the decision making processes,” Zurabishvili stressed.

“The government wants you to be full-fledged citizens of Georgia… Today, everyone has the right to restore their citizenship, but for this happen, you too should take a step forward and learn the state language,” she noted, adding that the authorities will spare no efforts to make Georgian language education more accessible for local residents.

President Zurabishvili travelled to Samtskhe-Javakheti on April 13-14. In Akhaltsikhe, the regional center, she met with mayors of local municipalities, as well as with local entrepreneurs.

As part of her regional visits, the President has already been to Samegrelo, Imereti and Kvemo Kartli.

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Georgia’s Foreign Trade in January-March 2019

Mon, 04/15/2019 - 12:16

Civil.ge

Georgia’s foreign trade turnover in the first three months of 2019 decreased by 0.1%, compared to the same period last year, amounting to USD 2.8 billion.

The preliminary figures were released by the National Statistics Office, Geostat, on April 15.

According to Statistics Office, exports from Georgia were up by 12.8% year-on-year to USD 0.8 billion, and imports were down by 4.7% y/y to USD 2 billion in January-March. The trade gap stood at USD 1.2 billion.

Geostat will release the detailed figures of foreign trade for the reporting period on April 19.

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