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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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CSOs, Citizens Start Petition ‘to Save the Judiciary’

Sat, 02/16/2019 - 23:35

Civil.ge

A group, consisting of civil society organizations, political parties and private citizens have started a petition entitled “For Saving the Judiciary”. The petition is addressed to the Parliament of Georgia and the High Council of Justice. It voices demands for finding the ways out of the perceived crisis of confidence in the judicial system.

The statement says the years of reforms “failed to achieve their objectives”. According to it, the key reason is that the ruling parties did not show the political will to relinquish their control over the judiciary. The group believes that this “had adverse effects on the rights of each and every citizen Georgia, as well as the country’s [international] reputation and [its] democratic development.”

The authors of the petition point at the “clannish rule” of “discredited” judges, who “entered into alliance with the ruling party and tailored all important reforms to [suit] their own interests.”

“The signs of nepotism and corruption have emerged in the judiciary. The dominating clan is persecuting dissenting opinions,” reads the petition, according to which “the current crisis destroys trust towards judiciary’s impartiality and independence and shakes the foundations of Georgia’s democratic development.”

The group also notes that resolute decisions and principled reforms are the only solution to the problem. The authors of the petition demand resignation of the judges, Mikheil Chinchaladze and Levan Murusidze, who “have turned into a symbol of injustice,” as well as those members of the High Council of Justice, who supported “clannish principles in decision making.”

The petition has been signed, among others, by Transparency International Georgia, Human Rights and Monitoring Center, Georgian Democracy Initiative, Institute for Development of Freedom of Information, International Society for Fair Elections and Democracy. The Petition is open to signatures from any interested citizen. The petition requires 1000 signatures to be carried forward and has been signed by 425 at the time of writing.

The post CSOs, Citizens Start Petition ‘to Save the Judiciary’ appeared first on Civil.ge.

CSOs Call for Higher Transparency in TBC Bank Case

Fri, 02/15/2019 - 20:48

Civil.ge

Five local watchdogs released a statement on February 15 in response to the recent sanctioning of the TBC Bank board chiefs by the National Bank of Georgia, saying that hasty decisions against a “particularly successful” financial organization “raise questions” and may affect the country’s economic development and financial stability.

“Due to high public interest, it is important that the National Bank of Georgia (NBG) explains its decision to demand recalling specific persons from the TBC Bank’s Supervisory Board… The relevant law enforcement agencies should provide the public with information about the investigation against TBC Bank and/or its shareholders,” the statement reads.

According to the statement, signed by Open Society Georgia Foundation (OSGF), Georgian Democracy Initiative (GDI), Institute for Development of Freedom of Information (IDFI), International Society for Fair Elections and Democracy (ISFED) and Transparency International Georgia (TI), it is important to ensure that the ongoing investigation does not hamper TBC Bank’s activities, as well as to respond to the public interest so as “to rule out any doubts about using selective justice.”

On February 13, the National Bank of Georgia (NBG) issued a statement giving the shareholders two months notice to remove the Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Mamuka Khazaradze and his deputy Badri Japaridze. The NBG said this decision does not affect the status of the two as shareholders.

The post CSOs Call for Higher Transparency in TBC Bank Case appeared first on Civil.ge.

61 Civil Servants to Leave President’s Administration – Reports

Fri, 02/15/2019 - 19:57

Civil.ge

President’s administration said 61 employees will be made redundant as a part of an ongoing reorganization, Georgian media reported on February 15. The report says the qualification criteria were re-assessed, and the employees passed tests and interviews during in December 2018-January 2019.

President’s administration explained that only 37 employees from the previous composition of were retained, after passing all necessary qualification requirements. 11 employees are on their maternity leave and thus preserve their positions by law.

The 61 persons will now have to be either re-assigned by the Civil Service Bureau to the positions commensurate to their grade, or will receive one-time compensations, should they decide to quit the civil service. The remaining vacancies will be advertised for competition among civil servants.

These procedures were put in place with the Law on Civil Service that entered into force last year.

The plans on staff cuts were first announced in early December, 2018 after the new budget reduced funding for the President’s administration by GEL 3.8 million and decreasing its staff from 140 to 60. These changes to the budget were made between the first and the second rounds of the Presidential elections.

The post 61 Civil Servants to Leave President’s Administration – Reports appeared first on Civil.ge.

Eurojust, Georgia to Counter Organized Crime

Fri, 02/15/2019 - 18:39

Civil.ge

Eurojust – European Union’s Judicial Cooperation Unit, and Georgia will sign an agreement of cooperation in criminal matters, Eurojust reported on February 14, following the European Parliament’s voting in favor of the deal.

According to Eurojust, Georgia will become the first country in the South Caucasus to have concluded such a deal, which “if subsequently approved by the Council, will unlock the possibility of a more robust exchange of information in criminal investigations between the two parties.”

“The agreement will help Eurojust better target Georgian organized crime groups that are transnationally active and pose a major threat to security in Europe,” Eurojust stated, noting that for Georgia, the agreement “will be an important tool to meet its international commitment to prevent and fight organized crime.”

.@Eurojust-Georgia cooperation agreement approved by 555/29/20 in #EPlenary | @KaufmannSylvia pic.twitter.com/3nQotIquZe

— LIBE Committee Press (@EP_Justice) February 14, 2019

Eurojust’s President, Ladislav Hamran welcomed the European Parliament’s support of the draft cooperation agreement, which, he believes “will offer the possibility to establish a practical partnership in the fight against serious organized crime with a State of the South Caucasus region.”

“Today’s vote is an important step towards concluding an operational agreement with Georgia, which will facilitate the investigation and prosecution of organized crime both in Georgia and the European Union,” Hamran stated.

In their statements of February 15, Georgian Justice Ministry and Prosecutor’s Office underscored importance of the agreement as well. The Justice Ministry said negotiations between the parties had started earlier in 2015, and soon the Justice Minister, Prosecutor General and Eurojust President will officially seal the deal.

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Georgia, Hong Kong Free Trade Agreement Takes Effect

Fri, 02/15/2019 - 12:08

Civil.ge

A Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Georgia and Hong Kong, the special administrative region of the People’s Republic of China, came into force on February 13, according to the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development of Georgia.

The Ministry said the agreement aims to determine the terms of free movement of goods between Georgia and Hong Kong as well as to promote trade in services.

“Enactment of the agreement will promote the growth of trade turnover between the sides and open up opportunities for Georgian entrepreneurs to offer their products and services to a seven-million consumer market without additional bureaucratic barriers,” the Ministry stated.

Georgia and Hong Kong sealed FTA in June 2018.

Georgia’s trade turnover with Hong Kong, according to the State Statistics Office Geostat, stood at USD 24.28 million in 2018, with exports at USD 1.83 million (USD 6.35 million in 2017) and imports at USD 22.45 million (USD 102.58 million in 2017).

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Measuring Georgian Resilience

Fri, 02/15/2019 - 11:55

Civil.ge

By Laura Thornton

“Resilience” is a term clearly in vogue right now. It is being used in Georgia and elsewhere in the context of a multitude of different things. It’s brought up in military context, on security. It is also being used to describe an inoculation to illiberal, undemocratic forces. It is discussed in reference to resistance to disinformation and propaganda campaigns. It has described robust, secure economies. But how can it be measured, and what factors are indicators for a resilient society? Does Georgia have it, and, if not, how to build it?

NDI has started exploring measurements of resilience through our public opinion research with CRRC Georgia. With help from experts, such as Israeli Professor Shaul Kimhi who has carried out a resilience index in several countries, NDI conducted a nationwide poll that measured some of the factors associated with resilience and held focus groups across the country to delve deeper into Georgian opinions on crises and coping. Our research has defined resilience as the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or significant sources of stress. Resilience is the ‘bouncing back’ from difficult experiences. National Resilience is the balance of perceived national strength and vulnerability after adversity or a traumatic event, and is measured on factors such as social cohesion, trust in institutions, faith in government responses to a crisis, and a sense of fear and threats.

In our poll, we adapted a 13-point scale (based on Kimhi, 2017) to measure national resilience. Factor analysis identified three main components: trust toward institutions and government, identification with the country and society, and social solidarity. On a scale of one to six, Georgians have relatively high trust in the police (3.7), average trust in the educational system (3.3), and low trust in parliament (2.8). On other measures, Georgians are quite optimistic about the future of the country and do not want to leave the country, but belief in social solidarity and justice is low. Confidence in the government to make the right decisions in a crisis, and in citizens to stand behind the government, is average. We also learned what other opinions correlate with national resilience. For example, people who believe Georgia is going in the right direction, assess crime and corruption as low, are active voters, and believe military performance has improved, are more likely to find Georgia more highly resilient.

Importantly, party preference significantly shapes perception of many of these resilience factors, a concerning finding. In other words, Georgian Dream party supporters reveal much higher trust in institutions, optimism, and belief in social cohesion that those who support other parties or have no affiliation.

NDI focus groups went deeper in an attempt to better understand these components of resilience, asking people about their experiences with crises, how they coped, their thoughts about the future and advancement, and what makes countries resilient. Georgians described how the country has faced severe challenges and survived them with friends and family and faith. They did not exhibit anxiety about the future and were generally optimistic. Importantly, when asked what countries they thought of as resilient, respondents frequently mentioned Georgia.

However, they did not describe meaningful community cohesion, outside friends and family, or emphasize the role of the state as a primary response to a crisis. Further, they painted a picture of a country where there is not a level playing field and where institutions are built on connections, not qualifications, affecting their perception of Georgia’s strength and provider of opportunities. As one middle-aged woman from Tbilisi told us when describing stress, “Losing a job because of nepotism was the most stressful event one year ago. They fired me and appointed a relative. It was awful. I still can’t get over it.” While overall sense of danger was low, a sign of resilient societies, focus group participants demonstrated some feelings of threat and insecurity about foreigners and vulnerability to xenophobia. They expressed welcome toward foreigners from specific, mostly Western, countries, but not from Turkey or Arab countries. They were concerned about foreigners negatively impacting Georgian culture and taking jobs from “real Georgians.”

So, is Georgia resilient? Well, in short, it’s complicated. Overall, based on this limited research, Georgians demonstrate resilient attitudes and behaviors on some key indicators such as optimism and belief in themselves to “keep calm and carry on” in a crisis. However, other areas are weaker, and partisan beliefs impact people’s feelings of security and strength. The question remains: how to build up resilience where it is weaker? NDI research has only uncovered some limited clues and more study is needed. Building strong, cohesive communities, having democratic governance that actually delivers for people, ensuring fairness and a level playing field for all to pursue their goals, are all well-known ingredients, in addition, of course, to the military hardware and international security support. Next steps will be to better explore means to bolster resilience and hopefully uncover how it is gained and lost.

Laura Thornton is National Democratic Institute’s resident director in Georgia.

The post Measuring Georgian Resilience appeared first on Civil.ge.

TBC Bank Shares Slide, as National Bank asks Board Chair, Deputy to Exit

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 23:43

Civil.ge

The National Bank of Georgia (NBG) has issued a statement (available in Georgian only) giving TBC Bank’s shareholders two months notice to remove the Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Mamuka Khazaradze and his deputy Badri Japaridze from the Supervisory Board. The NBG said this decision does not affect the status of the two as shareholders. 

The NBG says its decision is linked with the cases of “violations of the legislation related to the conflict of interest” in transactions dated 2007-2008, unveiled during the examination of the TBC Bank’s accounts.

TBC Bank (TBCG) is listed at the London Stock Exchange under FTSE250. Its shares slid on the announcement by 6,65%. The live status of trades at LSE is available here.

TBCG Trades at LSE 14 Feb. 2019 TBC Bank’s response

In its official statement, the bank said it will challenge the decision of NBG in courts and pledged to protect the interests of the bank and its shareholders. Seeking to reassure shareholders, the bank also addressed the LSE saying that Khazaradze and Japaridze will continue to hold their positions as board members and Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Supervisory board of TBC PLC, a public limited company registered in England and Wales that was incorporated in February 2016. TBC PLC is the parent company of JSC TBC Bank (“TBC Bank”) since 10 August 2016. TBC PLC is listed on the London Stock Exchange under the symbol TBCG. 

Chairman Defends his record

Mamuka Khazaradze, in a statement published via social media said “we won’t surrender our business, our freedom, and our dignity”. He cast doubt on an “expedited decision” taken by NBG, as well as the “campaign to mar the reputation” of the Bank. 

He linked the campaign to the construction of the deep-sea port of Anaklia , wherein TBC Holding leads the consortium also involving Conti International from the United States, SSA Marine from the United States, British Wondernet Express, and G-Star Ltd. from Bulgaria.

Khazaradze also claimed that the 11-year-old transactions sanctioned by NBG were audited by Dentons, which “not only found no trace of money laundering, abuse of office or any other criminal offense, but established that there was no conflict of interest.”

The Prosecutor’s Office has impounded certain documents linked to an undisclosed private transaction from TBC Bank offices on 8 January 2019. TBC Bank then said the actions were “premeditated attempt to discredit and damage the reputation” of the bank.

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Foreign Minister Joins World Leaders in Warsaw

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 16:29

Civil.ge

Foreign Minister Davit Zalkaliani joined the world leaders at the Ministerial to Promote a Future of Peace and Security in the Middle East, organized jointly by the United States and Poland in Warsaw on February 13-14.

In his video remarks from Warsaw, Minister Zalkaliani noted that he had a “very meaningful, brief conversation” with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, on the sidelines of the ministerial, with the two sharing “immensely positive” opinion of the “U.S.-Georgia strategic partnership.”

FM Zalkaliani then noted that the two countries cooperation in defense and security, and the steps forward to deepening economic ties was also discussed during the meeting.

According to Zalkaliani, he also briefed Pompeo on the situation in Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia, and Russia’s recent “illegal steps” there, with the Secretary of State stressing the U.S. “unwavering support” to Georgia.

“Russia’s invasions of Georgia and Ukraine, its unprovoked attack on Ukrainian naval vessels in the Black Sea this past November, and its ongoing hybrid warfare against us and our allies are direct challenges to our security and to our way of life,” U.S. Secretary of State said in his remarks at the Bemowo Piskie Training Area in Orzysz, Poland on February 13.

Georgia was featured in the remarks of U.S. Vice President Mike Pence as well. At yesterday’s joint press statement with Polish President Andrzej Duda, Pence said “despite years of negotiations, Russian forces still occupy large parts of Georgia and Ukraine, and they recently unlawfully detained Ukrainian ships and their crews in the Black Sea.”

The Georgian Foreign Minister will further travel to Germany, to attend the Munich Security Conference on February 15-17.

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Georgian, Turkish Speakers Meet in Ankara

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 13:07

Civil.ge

Georgian Parliament Speaker Irakli Kobakhidze, who is visiting Turkey on February 12-14, met yesterday with his counterpart, Binali Yildirim. The two speakers discussed deepening of the bilateral ties.

In his remarks following the meeting, Kobakhidze stressed importance of friendship between Georgia and Turkey, and their cooperation on political, economic and cultural levels.

“We of course spoke of the issues of strategic and national importance for our countries as well,” Kobakhidze said, noting that the two parliament speakers “once again focused on the issues of territorial integrity,” with Kobakhidze thanking his Turkish counterpart for the support from “Turkish friends” over this issue.

Komşumuz #Gürcistan'ın Parlamento Başkanı Irakli Kobakhidze’yle ikili ilişkilerimizi görüştük ve ülkemizin desteğini yineledik.

Discussed bilateral relations between #Turkey#Georgia w/Irakli Kobakhidze, Speaker of Parliament of our neighbor Georgia&reiterated our support. pic.twitter.com/VqkbbZfg8A

— Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu (@MevlutCavusoglu) February 13, 2019

In Ankara, Speaker Kobakhidze met also with Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu. The Georgian Parliament Speaker is scheduled to meet other Turkish officials today as well.

The post Georgian, Turkish Speakers Meet in Ankara appeared first on Civil.ge.

Marneuli Mayor Files for Resignation

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 19:14

Civil.ge

Marneuli Mayor, Temur Abazov, who has been charged with inhuman and degrading treatment of a local resident, filed his resignation to the Marneuli City Council.

Abazov said that he could not hold the same position with “such charges” leveled against him, although he continues to claim innocence. “It was a well-organized provocation and there is no evidence, and facts about my involvement,” he said.

Abazov has been suspended from office pending the trial. His deputy, Zaur Tabatadze has been appointed as Acting Mayor. The Marneuli City Council is expected to deliberate and vote on relieving Abazov on his duties in the coming days.

Temur Abazov was arrested on charges of inhuman and degrading treatment of a local resident on June 13. Later the court sentenced him to a period pretrial detention. Last December, he was released after paying a GEL 10,000 bail.

The arrest came a day after Tbilisi-based Studio Monitor published a story showing a video of a Marneuli resident Elchin Alakhvediev compelled to apologize for verbally insulting the ruling party founder and leader Bidzina Ivanishvili and Marneuli Mayor Temur Abazov at one of the teen murder case rallies in Tbilisi. Another video, obtained by Studio Monitor, showed Alakhvediev forced into humiliation of wiping his face with what seemed to be his urine,

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Two Persons Briefly Detained Near Occupation Line

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 18:41

Civil.ge

Two men, detained for “illegal border crossing” near the occupation line with Abkhazia on February 13, have been released, the State Security Service, Georgia’s domestic intelligence agency, confirmed to Civil.ge.

The Georgian media reported that earlier today the two men were detained near the village of Ganmukhuri in Zugdidi municipality, close to Administrative Boundary Line. According to the Georgian officials, a hotline has been activated and the EU Monitoring Mission (EUMM) has been immediately informed.

In her remarks, State Minister for Reconciliation and Civic Equality Ketavan Tsikhelashvili condemned the incident, saying “the occupation regime continues its ugly practice of illegal detentions” which in her words, are a part of “occupation policy” of pressuring ethnic Georgian citizens.

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Defense Minister, NATO Officials Meet in Brussels

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:11

Civil.ge

Today, Defense Minister Levan Izoria discussed NATO-Georgia relations with Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and Deputy Secretary General Rose Gottemoeller, on the sidelines of NATO Defense Ministerial being held in Brussels on February 13-14. 

Defense Ministry reported, that Izoria spoke with Stoltenberg and Gottemoeller about Georgia’s European and Euro-Atlantic integration, the country’s role in ensuring regional and international security, as well as its defense reforms, and NATO-Georgia exercise

Today DefMin #Izoria met with @NATO 's SecGen @jensstoltenberg

Georgia’s Foreign Trade in January 2019

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:13

Civil.ge

Georgia’s foreign trade turnover in the first month of 2019 increased by 1.2%, compared to the same period last year, reaching USD 826.8 million, according to the preliminary figures released by the State Statistics Office, Geostat, on February 13.

Exports from Georgia increased by 7.2% year-on-year to USD 238.8 million, and import was down by 1.1% y/y to USD 588 million in January, with trade gap standing at USD 349.2 million.

Geostat will release the detailed figures of foreign trade for the reporting period on February 19.

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Hodges: accession of West Germany into NATO is a precedent for Georgia

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 10:42

Civil.ge

Lieutenant General (Retired) Ben Hodges, Pershing Chair of Strategic Studies at the Center for European Policy Analysis, told Voice of America’s Ia Meurmishvili that Georgia has nothing else left to prove to NATO in order to be invited into the Alliance. LTG Hodges also spoke about the state of the Black Sea security from NATO’s prospective and analyzed the Kerch Strait incident in a global context.

LTG Hodges’s last military assignment was a Commander of the United States Army in Europe from 2014 to 2017.

Black Sea security and its role in the overall European security has been a much discussed and important topic in recent years. How solid is the Black Sea security from NATO’s perspective at the moment?

The Alliance has certainly recognized the strategic importance of the Black Sea this past year. In 2018, there were more days when there were ships from NATO countries operating in the Black Sea, within the constraints of the Montreux Convention. So, the United States, Germany and other countries, have had ships in the Black Sea [more frequently], and this is a recognition [of its importance].

In the Black Sea, you have Turkey, which has a responsibility for Turkish Straits under the Montreux Convention and has always very strictly enforced the convention provisions, which is important. Then you have two other NATO allies, Romania and Bulgaria, you have two very good friends, Georgia and Ukraine, and then, of course, the Russian Federation. The key is to ensure the security and stability of our allies and our friends, as well as the freedom of navigation on the Black Sea in accordance with international law. Unlike in the Baltic Sea, where you have seven countries that are either NATO members or friends like Finland and Sweden, and the Russian Federation, and [free] access in and out, the Black Sea is different because of the Montreux.

We have talked about this in the past that Georgia needs to play a larger role or become more active in assisting the NATO allies with enhancing security in the Black Sea. The Georgian President, during her recent visit to Brussels, made a very clear point that she wants Georgia to be a key player in the Black Sea security. Where do you think Georgia stands right now from this perspective, and is there anything Georgia can do to become a bigger partner for the allies? 

First of all, I believe that Georgia should be invited to join the Alliance at the next summit. I absolutely believe in that, but not everybody sees it that way. There are concerns that 20% of the country is still occupied by Russian troops, but there is a precedent for NATO membership; Germany was divided in East and West, where you had hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops occupying East Germany. Yet, West Germany was brought into the Alliance, and this is something that could be worked out [also for Georgia].

Georgia should be a member of the Alliance because, number one, it would improve the overall security situation in the Black Sea region and would enhance the security of other allies there. Number two, the Georgians have done everything required. There is nothing else left to prove and it is not just the fact that you have suffered casualties in Afghanistan; you have brave soldiers and everybody wants to have Georgian troops with them because they are so good. So, you have nothing else to prove. It is time for the Alliance to go ahead and take that next step and invite Georgia for membership.

It is time for the Alliance to go ahead and take that next step and invite Georgia for membership.

The second point is that the potential for economic improvement in the region is about to go way up, particularly with the construction of the Anaklia port. It is going to be built over the next couple of years, a $2.5 billion investment, and has Georgian and U.S. companies investing, as well as others. The potential for Anaklia to become a logistics hub – as part of the portal between Europe and Eurasia – is huge. The stakeholders, European countries, as well as the United States, will be even more interested in the security of Georgia once the port of Anaklia is operational, because there will be so much economic activity that Georgia will be more important in the eyes of businesspeople and political leaders. This is another reason why we would all benefit from a very secure and stable Georgia, which would come with Georgia being a part of the Alliance.

The third point – until that day comes – we have to figure out ways to incorporate Georgia into the security efforts in the Black Sea region, where there is protected freedom of navigation for everybody in accordance with international law and the Montreux Convention. I think the Alliance, as well as the United States in a bilateral way, is already doing things. Obviously, there is a [U.S.-funded] program for developing Georgia’s defense capabilities. The U.S. is also looking at [establishing] some sort of a joint airbase [in Georgia]. There is intelligence sharing between U.S. and Georgia. Nobody expects Georgia to have a big navy in the Black Sea, but exercises, intelligence sharing, and air and missile defense capabilities to protect Georgian citizens are the three steps that directly affect Georgia and Georgia’s contribution [to NATO].

As you mentioned, the greater the economic interests, especially in that region, the greater the chances for Georgia to become a member.

That’s right, if economic interests are greater, many countries will have vested interests. They will be stakeholders in the stability and security of Georgia because there will be hundreds of millions of dollars worth of products moving back and forth through this new port.

In late November, there was a major incident in the Kerch Strait where Russia seized Ukrainian ships and arrested Ukrainian sailors. What do you think is happening? Is there a military conflict on the Black Sea right now?

Of course, there is a conflict, because Russia has illegally annexed Crimea. They have seized three Ukrainian vessels and 24 sailors are still sitting in jail in Russia. The bridge that was built across the Kerch Strait was designed in such a way that serious cargo vessels that normally would have sailed in and out of Mariupol and Berdyansk can no longer do that. That was not an accident or a design flaw. It was a deliberate step taken to not only establish a land bridge to Ukraine from the Russian mainland, but also to begin a blockade of the Sea of Azov. The strategic end of that is to significantly disrupt if not damage the Ukrainian economy, because of the importance of these ports, and eventually to choke off the Sea of Azov, and for Russia to have full control of it.

Can Turkey consider these events as a war on the Black Sea? And if it is so, why do you think we have not seen any strong actions from Ankara regarding the implementation of the Montreux Convention? 

I am not aware of the discussions that might be going on between the Turkish and Ukrainian governments about that, but I recently heard the Foreign Minister of Ukraine, Pavlo Klimkin, refer to those 24 sailors as prisoners of war, not detainees, but prisoners of war. So, I think Ukraine sees it as such. Obviously, these things are always complicated, and it is never just black and white when it comes to how to legally categorize certain developments. In the greater scheme of things, however, if the West – including Turkey as a NATO ally – allows Russia’s illegal claim to Crimea to stand, and therefore the so-called territorial waters around Crimea to be treated as if they were Russian, then de facto, Russia’s annexation of Crimea will be accepted by the West. That is bad on a couple of levels; it undermines what all of us are trying to do to support Ukraine and to support international law, and an international order where people respect international law.

If the West – including Turkey as a NATO ally – allows Russia’s illegal claim to Crimea to stand, and therefore the so-called territorial waters around Crimea to be treated as if they were Russian, then de facto, Russia’s annexation of Crimea will be accepted by the West.

Number two, maybe even more dangerously, there is a precedent now. There are two or three other places around the world where you have narrow entrances such as the Straits of Hormuz, the South China Sea, and a couple of other places and if one country is able to get total control and manages to seal off these interior seas, then this would become a precedent. This would have major implications. Think about what goes through the Straits of Hormuz, and the South China Sea. So this this is a big deal. This is not something that happened off in a corner of the world and that only affects Russia and Ukraine.

Do you think this is making Turkey nervous? The status quo is clearly changing in the Black Sea. 

I am sure Turkey is watching it very carefully. They take very seriously their responsibility for sovereignty over the Turkish Straits, the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, and the enforcement of the Montreux Convention. They are in a very tough neighborhood with Iran, Iraq, and Syria to their south, the Caucasus to the East, the Balkans to the West and Russia to the North. The Turkish leadership will tell you that they are fighting three different terrorist organizations at this time. They are concerned about what is happening in Syria now, especially in light of an announcement by President Trump that the U.S. is going to depart from there. So, they have real challenges. I could respect and understand why they would be very careful about how they might react to what Russia is doing. And then of course, there are other things; they intend to buy the S-400 air defense system from the Russian Federation. So these things, I think, are affecting their ability to react.

You have known Georgia for many years, you have worked with the Georgians and you have seen some of the processes inside the country, as well as the external perceptions of Georgian democracy. What do you think about the direction of the country? Is there anything Georgia could be doing differently, or better, or should it stop doing something in order to enhance its security and get closer to the West? 

As I mentioned earlier, Georgia has nothing left to prove about NATO membership – from the security standpoint or from the military standpoint. The fact that Vice President Mike Pence was there over a year ago was a powerful demonstration of U.S. commitment to Georgia.

People with serious money, who want to invest, need to be confident that there is transparency on transactions, and reliability of legal structures.

I think, it is about transparency, about institutions that you would expect to have in a liberal democracy – electoral process, judicial process, and especially the business process. Georgia is on the cusp of exploding in a positive way economically. The Port of Anaklia, I think, has a chance to be something, and people with serious money, who want to invest, need to be confident that there is transparency on transactions, and reliability of legal structures. I think this will be very important, and will be a very positive thing for Georgia.

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This material was prepared for Civil.ge by the Voice of America. In order to license this and other content free of charge, please contact Adam Gartner.

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OSCE PA to Issue Final Election Observation Report on Georgia

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 12:05

Civil.ge

The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (OSCE PA) will introduce its final election observation report of the last direct presidential elections in Georgia, during its winter meeting on February 21-22 in Vienna, Austria.

OSCE PA announced on February 11 that the leaders of the election observation missions to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, United States and Armenia “will present reports, followed by discussions” on February 22.

54 and 11 parliamentarians and staff from the OSCE PA observed the two rounds of Georgia’s presidential elections in October and November 2018, respectively.

The upcoming meeting in Vienna promises to bring together nearly 300 parliamentarians from OSCE member states, including Georgia.

According to OSCE PA, President of the Austrian National Council Wolfgang Sobotka, OSCE PA President Giorgi Tsereteli, OSCE Chairperson-in-Office and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Slovakia Miroslav Lajčák and OSCE Secretary General Thomas Greminger, will open the meeting.

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Parliament to Study Disinformation, Propaganda Challenges

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 09:40

Civil.ge

A special working group to study the challenges posed by disinformation and propaganda will be set up in the Parliament, it was announced yesterday.

The group is to be led by the Deputy Chair of Foreign Relations Committee Nino Goguadze (GDDG). Opposition factions of the United National Movement and the European Georgia expressed readiness to participate.

According to MP Goguadze, in the coming months the group will study the extent of the challenge posed by propaganda across the country, efforts made by various governmental and non-governmental actors and would offer recommendations to the relevant agency.

She stressed, that the effort would particularly target the Russian propaganda. Most of the sessions of the group are expected to be closed for public.

Refer to Civil.ge archives for disinformation-related content

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Parliament Weekly: 4-10 February

Mon, 02/11/2019 - 20:45

Civil.ge

MPs are back in the capital… On February 5, the Parliament renewed its work in the renovated halls of the iconic building on Tbilisi’s Rustaveli avenue. The biggest part of this building (on a title photo) was constructed in 1938, to house the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. It was expanded in 1953, and – notably – acquired its trademark front colonnade.

In 2012 the Parliament moved to the city of Kutaisi in a glass-and-concrete building constructed as a part of the decentralization drive by the previous administration. After coming to power the Georgian Dream Democratic Georgia said the move was both inconvenient and expensive, and pledged to return the chambers to Tbilisi, which was accomplished with passing of the amended Constitution.

…as opposition protests the move: representatives of the opposition protested the relocation of the Parliament from Kutaisi to Tbilisi.

Akaki Bobokhidze of the European Georgia, elected from Kutaisi constituency said the government lied it promised “that the Parliament would not be relocated from Kutaisi to Tbilisi.” Bobokhidze belives that the ruling Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia’s (GDDG) “empty promises” are “never kept.”

“Undermining of the state institutions is currently underway in the country and that is expressed in relocating the Parliament from Kutaisi to Tbilisi as well as relocating the Presidential palace from Avlabari to Atoneli Street,” United National Movement’s (UNM) Roman Gotsiridze agreed.

New Rules of Procedure promise more oversight: As envisaged by the new rules of procedure endorsed by the Parliament last December, Parliamentary Chairman Irakli Kobakhidze submitted an annual report on the legislature’s performance and an action plan for the coming session.

“We are meeting the new parliamentary year with increased and more efficient possibilities of parliamentary oversight defined by the new wording of the constitution and the new rules of procedure,” Irakli Kobakhidze said.

Kobakhidze’s address was followed by the speeches of committee chairs, assessing the Speaker’s address and providing brief reports on the performance of their respective committees.

Vice Speaker Tamar Chugoshvili said in her address that “we want the Parliament to be strong and corresponding to the democratic country,” which “first of all it implies its oversight function.” UNM’s Gotsiridze disagreed, noting the Parliament’s role and function is frequently “neglected” in the process of sending questions by MPs to the government members.

Education Minister on the floor: Minister of Education, Science, Culture and Sport, Mikheil Batiashvili reported to the Parliament at the plenary session on February 7, speaking about the planned reforms in education system and unveiling the novelties in the spheres of culture and sport.

Later in the evening the minister appeared before the Education, Science and Culture Committee, answering critical questions from lawmakers, mainly about the death of the director of public school No. 6 in Zugdidi, western Georgia, who – opposition claims – succumbed to pressure exerted over her due to sympathies towards opposition.

… Next in line: Minister of Regional Development and Infrastructure: Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Regional Development and Infrastructure, Maia Tskitishvili, was expected to report to the Parliament during the previous session week, but her address was postponed to the next session week.

Reverberations from Pankisi felt: The agenda also envisaged discussion of UNM’s initiative on setting up an interim investigative commission to probe into the case of Temirlan Machalikashvili, a 19-year-old resident of Georgia’s north-eastern Pankisi gorge, who was shot dead during the State Security Service operation in 2017; however, the discussion was postponed for the next session week.

MP Kiladze: “The occupying force tries to erase Georgian trace”

On February 7, Chair of the Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee, Sopo Kiladze (GDDG) participated in the event organized by the State Agency for Religious Issues, with Kiladze championing the religious rights in the occupied regions.

“Today, the occupying force tries to erase Georgian trace in all the churches and chapels on the occupied territories through vandalism: they destroy Orthodox monuments, icons, frescoes on a daily basis. It is deplorable, when the clergymen of other confessions are admitted to the occupied territories, and Georgian Orthodox Church has no such right,” Kiladze said, pointing out that “along with ethnic discrimination, we witness the discrimination on religious grounds.”

New Appointments/Resignations

New Chair of Judicial Committee: MP Anri Okhanashvili of GDDG was elected to chair the Legal Issues Committee with 98 votes against 4 on February 5, replacing Eka Beselia, who quit the post last December.

Meetings and visits

  • On February 6, European Georgia’s Gorgi Tsereteli, who is also the OSCE PA President, addressed a seminar organized by the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee. MP Tsereteli travelled to the United States as part of the parliamentary delegation’s working trip.
  • On February 8, Chair of the Defense and Security Committee, Irakli Sesiashvili (GDDG) held an introductory meeting with Swedish Ambassador, H.E. Ulrik Tideström.
  • On the same day, Sesiashvili met with Ambassador of the European Union to Georgia, Carl Hartzell. The parties stressed the importance of the EUMM performance, with Sesiashvili noting that the activities carried out by the mission in respect of the occupied regions are invaluable.
  • On February 8, Tamar Khulordava (GDDG), chair of the European Integration Committee met with Swedish Ambassador, H.E. Ulrik Tideström, focusing on illegal migration and increased number of asylum seekers from Georgia to Sweden during last year.
  • On February 8, Mariam Jashi (GDDG), chair of Education, Science and Culture Committee participated in the event marking the 101st anniversary of Tbilisi State University.
  • Parliament’s Vice Speaker Ilia Nakashidze met with Director of the International Center for Tobacco Cessation, Martin Raw on February 8, with the latter providing technical assistance in developing the national strategy for tobacco cessation.
  • On February 10, the Agrarian Issues Committee held a field session in Kakheti, eastern Georgia, where the committee members discussed the planned legislative initiatives. Committee Chair Otar Danelia presented the draft organic law of Georgia on ownership of agricultural lands, noting that “land is an important asset; it is a matter of national value, national security and it needs correct management.”

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Scuffles as Saakashvili Meets Georgian Community in Liège, Belgium

Mon, 02/11/2019 - 16:24

Civil.ge

A scuffle erupted as Georgia’s ex-President Mikheil Saakashvili was holding a scheduled meeting with Georgian emigrants in a Belgian city of Liège on February 10.

Saakashvili promoted the planned meeting via social media, under the banner “Together at Home” several weeks ago. He said there was an urgent need to save Georgia, and called Georgia’s patriots for the gathering, which is showcased as one in a planned European tour to rally supporters.

In the past presidential elections, in October and November 2018, a candidate backed Saakashvili’s United National Movement performed particularly well outside the country.

The meeting was scheduled to start at 5pm local time, but had to be delayed for an hour duly due to a scuffle that erupted between the gathering participants. A part of the Georgians who gathered have met Saakashvili with protest posters and chants.

Despite the initial interruption, the  former President addressed the audience, discussing the political, social and economic situation in Georgia and unveiling his vision on overcoming the challenges and problems faced by the country.

He presented removal of Bidzina Ivanishvili from wielding power and the end to his oligarchy as the only solution. “Of course, we will return to Georgia; the situation is not ripe today, but in the coming weeks and months, we should prepare for it, because it is impossible to look at the destruction of your country from here,” Saakashvili added.

Polarized media coverage

National Georgian broadcasters covered the meeting – and an incident – in a distinctly polarized manner, depending on their political preference.

The story aired by Rustavi 2 TV, said the Georgian State Security Service dispatched “Kortskheli landing troops” to thwart Saakashvili’s meeting. The channel said security services have staged the provocation. According to the same story, Georgian Dream’s activists also arrived in Liège, “remaining loyal to their traditions and compiling lists all Georgian visitors to local hotels” – alluding to the practice decried by the opposition as the means of pressure on voters during the past presidential vote.

The Georgian Public Broadcaster and Imedi TV painted dramatically different stories. These two broadcasters noted that a part of emigrants were prevented from expressing their opinions and those disagreeing with Saakashvili were  blocked from accessing the venue, causing a scuffle. The two channels said these protesters were pepper-sprayed. Rustavi 2 TV, however, blamed the pro-governmental agents provocateurs for using the tear gas.

The next meeting between the ex-President and Georgian emigrants will be held in Rome.

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OSCE Chairperson-in-Office Visits Georgia, Reaffirms ‘Strong Support’

Mon, 02/11/2019 - 14:55

Civil.ge

Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, Miroslav Lajčák of Slovakia, the country that recently assumed the office of OSCE Chairmanship, is visiting Georgia in his capacity of Chairperson-in-Office on February 10-11. During the trip he met with Georgian officials, starting his visit symbolically at the occupation line.

The OSCE Chairperson-in-Office went to village Odzisi adjacent to Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia, where as the European Union Monitoring Missions (EUMM) reported, Minister Lajčák “received a briefing by EUMM monitors focusing on borderization in the area and challenges to freedom of movement.”

“As my first stop during my visit to Georgia, I went to the administrative boundary line to see for myself the situation on the ground,” Lajčák wrote on his Twitter page.

Official meetings

Meeting with his Georgian counterpart Davit Zalkaliani on February 11, Lajčák reaffirmed “OSCE’s strong support to Georgia in addressing its internal and external challenges.”

In my meetings w/ Georgian partners in Tbilisi, I reaffirmed @OSCE’s strong support to #Georgia in addressing its internal and external challenges, and discussed concrete opportunities for stronger co-operation. pic.twitter.com/702LQF11EZ

— Miroslav Lajčák (@MiroslavLajcak) February 11, 2019

On his part, Minister Zalkaliani hailed “close and friendly cooperation” between the two countries, and underscored that Lajčák’s visit to Georgia in the beginning of the Slovak chairmanship, confirms that Georgia is among the priorities on the OSCE agenda.

Assuming the OSCE Chairmanship in 2019, Slovakia promises, among others, to focus its attention on conflict resolution efforts in Georgia.

In Georgia, the Slovak Minister also met Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze, and State Minister for Reconciliation and Civic Equality Ketevan Tsikhelashvili.

He also spoke with the OSCE PA President, MP from opposition European Georgia Giorgi Tsereteli, discussing human rights and security situation in occupied regions.

Lajčák will also meet President Salome Zurabishvili later on today.

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Activists Protest Construction in Green Area

Sun, 02/10/2019 - 19:15

Civil.ge

On 9 February, urban activists have gathered to protest the construction of high-rise residential apartments in one of the few remaining green areas on the outskirts of Tbilisi’s Saburtalo district, close to Tbilisi State University High-raise building.

The developer Optima (also known under its trademark “m²”) plans to build four 12-storey buildings covering the area of 19,6 thousand square meters. They claim the habitation would represent 20% of the construction area, with 50% dedicated to green space. They also plan to construct a kindergarten, a playground, and a sports stadium.

Activist claims

Green and urban activists say the company plans to build in the area zoned since 2008 as “recreational” in a city plan, in violation of the existing regulations. The company representatives contest the claims, saying the planning regulations have been modified since, but may not yet be reflected in the zoning maps.

  • Activists rely on the official city zoning map (seen left), where the green area defines “recreational zone category 1”, where construction is forbidden save few specified exceptions.
  • “m²” lawyers say while the Regular Spatial Plan (RSP) has been modified in 2008 to give the contested area as “an intensive habitable zone”, the 2009 Tbilisi city council has adopted the “General Plan of Prospective Development” which contained the mention of the areas as a “recreational zone”.
  • In 2015, “m²” says, the City Council has finally modified the zoning maps to reflect the 2008 change. They say the city map has not been updated and reflects the “recreational zone” status in error.
  • Approached by the media, city authorities said the “RSP” and zoning development and approval “processes are separate”, but did not pronounce themselves clearly on the current status of the area.

PoW Cemetery?

Statement by researchers from the Soviet Past Research Laboratory (SovLab) that the construction area may have served as a cemetery for the WWII Prisoners of War (PoW) in 1940s and 50s, brought a new dimension into the debate. 

Irakli Khvadagiani, SovLab researcher says people’s memory, as well as the topographic and aerial maps from the period indicate the presence of the cemetery, although no definitive research has been conducted.

According to their preliminary research, PoWs worked in brickwork factory and construction material careers in the area. Their precise provenance is not known.

Activists say the issue warrants further research and should the existence of the cemetery be confirmed, the PoWs shall be properly honored.

Raising urban activism

The latest protest represents a new page in a growing size and influence of the movement against uncontrolled urbanization of Tbilisi that unites green movements, left-wing activists, Tbilisi history buffs and generally concerned citizens. It has been organized around established non-governmental groups pursuing green and human rights activism,  as well as student movements, and has succeeded in creating a social media ecosystem capable of coordination of media efforts and spontaneous mobilization.

Some of the prominent groups engaged in urban green activism include:

The movements say the uncontrolled construction of the apartment building accompanied by destruction of green spaces and historical heritage causes significant deterioration of the quality of life in the city and endangers life and health of citizens. They say collusion between city officials and developers, as well as the lack of vision about city’s future is to blame.

They have recently scored a significant victory when Tbilisi Mayor’s Office negotiated with a development company to relocate the planned hotel from Tbilisi’s rare central Vake Park.

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