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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/sciencelib/public_html/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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Syndicate content Civil.ge
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Updated: 5 weeks 3 days ago

Conti International Denies Reports on Staying in Anaklia Development Consortium

Sat, 10/26/2019 - 19:39

The U.S.-based Conti International, one of the main partners of Anaklia deep sea port project, denied reports about changing its decision to quit the Anaklia Development Consortium, saying that its position remains unchanged.

The Anaklia Development Consortium announced on October 25 that Conti International decided to stay in the project. However, in a statement released later the same day, Conti International noted that it “will continue to pursue a sale of its position in the Anaklia Port Project and exit the Consortium in a manner that is constructive and supportive of the Project achieving completion.”

“Conti has always believed in, and continues to believe in, the Anaklia Port Project. Conti looks forward to continuing to engage constructively with the Consortium, the Government of Georgia, and the Lenders on its exit from the Consortium and hopes to see the remaining members of the Consortium complete the Project in the near future,” the statement reads.

In response to Conti International, the Anaklia Development Consortium explained that “the transaction leading to Conti Group’s quitting the project has not been carried out and therefore it remains a shareholder.”

The Consortium noted that although Conti International still desires to quit the project, “no such transaction is anticipated in the near future.” “Conti Group still supports Anaklia deep sea port project and believes in its success,” the Consortium noted.

The Anaklia Development Consortium was founded in 2014 and its 99.99% is owned by JSC Anaklia Holding, while 0.01% is the state property. In turn, 42% of Anaklia Holding is owned by Conti International.

The Anaklia Development Consortium, a joint venture of Conti International and TBC Holding founded by Mamuka Khazaradze, former chairman of TBC Bank’s supervisory board, was awarded the contract to build and operate the deep sea port in 2016; marine engineering works commenced in December 2017 and the first phase of construction ended last autumn.

It emerged on August 15 that Conti International decided to quit the project. However, it failed to complete a transaction on selling its shares by the end of October.

Commenting on the issue, Levan Akhvlediani, director general of the Consortium, then said that “this is not a pleasant fact, but nothing has happened that may critically harm the project.” However, the Ministry of Regional Development and Infrastructure called on Consortium to submit to the government a plan on attracting “western strategic investor” to the project, which would replace Conti Group at the same value.

The Consortium has been involved in negotiations with several potential investors over past two months, even offering a cooperation plan to the government, but failing to get the latter’s consent. On October 15, the Anaklia Development Consortium accused the government of “sabotaging” the Anaklia deep sea port project.

The Government of Georgia decided not to terminate the contract between itself and the Anaklia Development Consortium and gave it time till the end of this year to fulfill its obligations.

The most recent meeting between the Consortium managers and government officials was held on October 24, where the parties discussed the issues related to Anaklia deep sea port project.

For more background, follow our tag on Anaklia port

Read also: 

Conti International Changes Decision to Quit Anaklia Development Consortium

Georgian Defense Minister, NATO SecGen Meet in Brussels

Sat, 10/26/2019 - 13:38

Georgian Defense Minister Irakli Garibashvili met with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and his counterparts from the NATO-member states yesterday, on the sidelines of the NATO Defense Ministerial held on October 24-25.

According to the Georgian Defense Ministry, at the meeting Minister Garibashvili thanked the NATO Secretary General for supporting Georgia’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.

Garibashvili also noted that the recent visit of the NATO’s North Atlantic Council (NAC) to Georgia, “has been a clear demonstration of result-oriented cooperation, and the Alliance’s firm support to Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic integration process.”

As part of the Ministerial, Garibashvili also attended a meeting of the NAC with Resolute Support Operational Partner Nations and Potential Operational Partner Nations on Friday.

“All our colleagues note with big gratitude that our hero military personnel fight alongside the soldiers of our partner countries in Afghanistan to protect peace and security,” Garibashvili tweeted.

In Brussels, Irakli Garibashvili discussed defense cooperation with his counterparts from Finland, Germany, Sweden, Ukraine and United Kingdom. He also spoke of the U.S.-Georgia relations with the U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO Kay Bailey Hutchison.

Garibashvili tweeted following his meetings that the NATO Secretary General, as well as his counterparts, “unanimously recognize” Georgia’s reforms and progress achieved in recent years.

HCoJ Requests President to Recall Anna Dolidze

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 19:53

The High Council of Justice of Georgia (HCoJ) has requested President Salome Zurabishvili to recall non-judge member, Anna Dolidze from the Council.

The initiative was submitted by Dimitri Gvritishvili, one of the judge members of the HCoJ, citing Dolidze’s “political activities” as the reason incompatible with the status of the HCoJ member.

The HCoJ told Civil.ge on October 25 that its 11 members supported Gvritishvili’s initiative. Only two members, Nazibrola Janezashvili and Irma Gelashvili, did not sign the initiative on recalling Anna Dolidze.

Anna Dolidze said in response to the Council’s decision that the High Council of Justice pursues Georgian Dream’s interests, adding that it has no right to request the President to recall her.

Responding to Gvritishvili’s allegations, Dolidze said that she is involved in public rather than political activities. “I am quite active in respect of public and civil issues and neither the previous government, nor the present one will stop it,” she told reporters.

Dolidze also noted that the decision of HCoJ is a sign of “political persecution” against her and that the President’s decision will be “a litmus test whether she becomes part of this political persecution, or takes side of critical voices against the government’s misconduct.”

The High Council of Justice is in charge of overseeing the judiciary with the authority to appoint or dismiss judges, as well as to initiate disciplinary proceedings against judges.

The institution consists of 15 members, with one member appointed by the President. Anna Dolidze was appointed as a non-judge member of the HCoJ by then President Giorgi Margvelashvili on January 8, 2018 for a four-year term. She assumed the office on January 17, 2018.

Anna Dolidze has been frequently criticizing the judiciary for misconduct and clannish rule, making critical statements against the present government as well.

Developments in Chorchana-Tsnelisi Area Discussed in Ergneti

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 19:24

On October 25, security officials from Tbilisi, Tskhinvali and the Russian Federation held the sixth “technical meeting” in village Ergneti, near the occupation line with Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia, over the recent developments in Chorchana-Tsnelisi area.

Following the meeting, Irakli Antadze, Deputy Director of the Analytical Department of the State Security Service of Georgia, said that today’s meeting was “entirely dedicated” to discussing the “negative developments and provocative actions” along the Chorchana village. 

“Positions remain unchanged,” Antadze said, explaining that representatives of Tskhinvali again demanded the Georgian police checkpoint “to be dismantled,” which, according to Antadze, is located on the “central government-controlled territory.”

Antadze then explained that the Georgian police forces, who are ensuring security on the ground, cannot pose any threat to the local peaceful population. He also said that the “provocative actions of occupation forces” along the Tsagvli-Chorchana area, affect the overall security environment on the ground.

Condemning yesterday’s incident when the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) patrol “was briefly held by armed South Ossetian security actors, while conducting a patrol in the Chorchana-Tsnelisi area,” the Deputy Director of the Analytical Department said the issue was also raised at the technical meeting. 

On his part, Tskhinvali representative Egor Kochiev also told local media that during the sixth technical meeting, the participants could not reach a compromise. However, he said, all of them acknowledge that “the issue should be solved exclusively in a peaceful way.”

The Georgian government constructed a police checkpoint at the edge of the occupation line, between the villages of Chorchana of Khashuri Municipality and Tsnelisi in late August.

Protesting the construction of the checkpoint, Tskhinvali representatives disrupted the Incident Prevention and Response Mechanism (IPRM) meeting in the village of Ergneti on August 29, demanding Tbilisi to remove the checkpoint.

The situation was defused somewhat, as the decision was reached to hold the “technical meeting.” However, the parties failed to reach a consensus anyway.

In a tit-for-tat move Tskhinvali announced on September 5 that “border service” crew has started works to “mark the border” in the disputed Chorchana-Tsnelisi area, by placing “border signs” and their flag on Tbilisi-controlled territory west of Tsnelisi village on height 944.8m.

The Georgian State Security Service reported earlier this month that Russian occupying forces “continue provocative actions” near the villages of Chorchana, Tsaghvli and Atotsi of Khashuri Municipality adjacent to Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia, through the process of illegal “borderization.”

Representatives of Tbilisi, Moscow and Tskhinvali will continue discussing the issue of disputable posts during next technical meetings.

 

Read also:

EUMM Monitors ‘Briefly’ Detained in Chorchana-Tsnelisi Area

Q&A on Georgia’s Code on the Rights of the Child

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 19:02

On September 20 Georgia adopted the Code on the Rights of the Child, which will fully enter into force on June 1, 2020. The Code aiming to “ensure the welfare of the child” recognizes the rights of the child as follows: dignity, life and personal development, equality, expression and participation, personal and family life, education, healthcare, social protection and justice, etc.

Civil Georgia (Civil.ge) approached Sophio Kiladze, chair of the Parliamentary Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee, Ghassan Khalil, UNICEF Representative in Georgia, and Ana Tavkhelidze, lawyer at “Partnership for Human Rights” organization to assess the new Code and to provide recommendations for its effective implementation.

We offer their responses below.

How would you assess the document overall?

Sophio Kiladze, chair of the Parliamentary Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee:

The present Code is a unified state policy [document] with the specific effective mechanisms to ensure well-being of children. It serves to reduce poverty and crime, provide quality education for children and to protect children from gambling, drugs and other harmful behaviors.

After three years of work, we have received a document outlining all key issues related to a child. Before adopting the Code on the Rights of the Child, we had the legislation, which was scattered in various legal acts or it was not regulated by law at all. Now all the flaws are refined and written down in details, including both the rights of children and obligations of a parent and a state towards him/her.

UNICEF, the European Union, our other Western partners unanimously emphasize the importance of the Child Code. There is an opinion to share Georgia’s experience with other countries, which in itself indicates to the importance of this Code.

Ghassan Khalil, UNICEF Representative in Georgia:

The Code on the Rights of the Child is an unique document in Georgian legal space covering all rights and freedoms of children in one act. It is a special law guiding all state agencies and local self-governments, other administrative bodies, the Common Courts, public and private organizations in their work and decision-making processes with and for children. Furthermore, it provides legal guarantees for empowering the child in independently exercising and protecting his/her rights, inter alia, through child-friendly access to justice institutions and mechanisms. The Code provides the rights and fundamental freedoms of the child with key measures and implementation mechanisms. It introduces a child rights impact assessment mechanism that shall be incorporated in the work of the Parliament, Government, and local municipalities, while making decisions, laws and by-laws which might directly or indirectly affect the rights of the child. Moreover, the Code reinforces the State’s obligation to align, interpret, and enforce the national legislation in compliance with the Constitution of Georgia, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols, and other international and regional treaties as recognized by Georgia.

We commend the efforts of the Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee and of its Chairperson, Ms. Sophie Kiladze, in the adoption of this important law.

Ana Tavkhelidze, lawyer at “Partnership for Human Rights”:

The adoption of the Code on the Rights of the Child is an important positive achievement, which will have a long-lasting effect on children in Georgia.  The code is a special law, that unites all main principles regarding rights of the child. The document imposes guarantees for the participation of the child in the decision making process, child’s right to access to justice without any barriers, protection from corporal punishment, etc. It creates higher standards for welfare and protection of children.

In your opinion, are there any gaps in the Code that need to be addressed? What are the shortcomings and how can they be solved/improved?

Sophio Kiladze: As an author of this law, I assure you that this is why we have worked on it for such a long time, [that is] to correct any defects or shortcomings. All of the government authorities, NGOs, international organizations, experts, religious confessions, parents and children were involved in its development. The only problem we may face is an insufficient financial capacity of our state to simultaneously implement all of the benefits and programs embodied in the Code and to fully cover Georgia in all of these directions.

However, we are working with the donor organizations and our partners to implement these programs gradually.

Ghassan Khalil: The code sets high standards in terms of implementation of child’s rights. Now all related legislation and policies need to be brought in compliance with the code. We hope that the process will be smooth and we will support the Government in that. There will be a need for more investments in implementing the Code so that this important document brings changes in the lives of every child in Georgia.

Ana Tavkhelidze: When the draft Code on the Rights of the Child was presented, there were many shortcomings, that would even worsen children rights’ protection process. For example, draft document was imposing child’s obligations to family, school and the state, that does not come into compliance with international standards. Fortunately, our recommendations were taken into consideration and all the shortcomings were improved. The main challenge of the Code on the Rights of the Child is an effective implementation. If the state will not provide effective financial and political support to the implementation process, the code will fail to bring any changes.

What would be your recommendations for the practical implementation of the Code?  

Sophio Kiladze: Having a good law and enforce the law are two different issues. Along with finances, I think that those who work directly with children, [will] play key roles in the dignified implementation of the Code. [This will require] increasing the number of psychologists, social workers, retraining of teachers, doctors and public servants who will have to deal with children. Ultimately, it is up to humans to protect our children and create a better future.

Ghassan Khalil: The implementation of the Code will require significant efforts from the Government, Parliament, and the Judiciary. UNICEF is ready to support the implementation process by helping to bring Georgian legislation in line with the requirements of the Code, creating various implementation mechanisms, enhancing specialization of professionals, and developing various instruments, methodology, and guidelines to work with children in different areas.

Child Rights Council needs to be created under the Parliament  (as required by the code) to ensure systematic and coordinated work during the process of establishing the state policy on the rights of the child, improving the legislation, budgeting and parliamentary monitoring.

Ana Tavkhelidze: There are several recommendations that have to be taken into consideration for the practical implementation of the code. First of all, all the existing laws and policies have to come into compliance with this document. Awareness raising activities for children, parents and various actors involved in child protection, are essential for implementation, as well as effective monitoring of the process.

The Parliament of Georgia has to adopt action plan of the Code by November 1, 2019.

Number of groups, mainly socially conservative Georgians, including Orthodox Christian priests, publicly decried the Code.

The Code explicitly bans corporal punishment of children in all settings, making Georgia 58th country in the world (and 33rd nation in the Council of Europe) to do so.

Read also:

Reconciliation Minister on Children’s Rights in Abkhazia, Tskhinvali

Conti International Changes Decision to Quit Anaklia Development Consortium

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 16:37

On October 25 the U.S.-based Conti International, one of the main partners of Anaklia deep sea port project, announced that it has changed its decision about quitting the Anaklia Development Consortium and that it will stay in the project. 

Prior to this decision, the Consortium managers and Infrastructure Minister Maia Tskitishvili held a meeting on October 24 to discuss the issues related to Anaklia deep sea port project.  

Earlier on October 16, the government decided not to terminate the contract with the Consortium and give it time till the end of the year to fulfill its obligations.

News about Conti International’s decision to quit the Anaklia Development Consortium emerged on August 15. Commenting on the issue, Levan Akhvlediani, director general of the Consortium, then said that “this is not a pleasant fact, but nothing has happened that may critically harm the project.”

However, the Ministry of Regional Development and Infrastructure called on Consortium to submit to the government a plan on attracting “western strategic investor” to the project, which would replace Conti Group at the same value.

The Consortium has been involved in negotiations with several potential investors over past two months, even offering a cooperation plan to the government, but failing to get the latter’s consent. On October 15, the Anaklia Development Consortium held a news briefing, accusing the government of “sabotaging” the Anaklia deep sea port project.

The Anaklia Development Consortium was founded in 2014 and its 99.99% is owned by JSC Anaklia Holding, while 0.01% is the state property.

The Anaklia Development Consortium, a joint venture of Conti International and TBC Holding founded by Mamuka Khazaradze, former chairman of TBC Bank’s supervisory board, was awarded the contract to build and operate the deep sea port in 2016; marine engineering works commenced in December 2017 and the first phase of construction ended last autumn.

Developments around TBC Bank, including money-laundering allegations against its founder, Mamuka Khazaradze, earlier this year have brought the fate of the Anaklia project into question. Although the government officials have said the project would not be imperiled, the Anaklia Development Consortium claimed lack of clarity around TBC Bank would impede finalizing of the pending agreements on funding with foreign lenders.

Mamuka Khazaradze and his deputy, Badri Japaridze announced about their plans to quit Anaklia Development Consortium’s Supervisory Board on July 26, after Tbilisi City Court ruled that the founder and former Board Chair of the TBC Bank, Mamuka Khazaradze and his Deputy Badri Japaridze had to post a GEL 700,000 bail each after being charged in a money laundering lawsuit.

In September, Mamuka Khazaradze founded a public movement Lelo, planning to set up a political party in December and to run in the 2020 parliamentary elections.

For more background, follow our tag on Anaklia port  

Read also:

Government Gives ‘Last Chance’ to Anaklia Development Consortium

Ombudsperson Speaks of Prisoner Rights Violations in Occupied Regions

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 16:29

Georgian Public Defender Nino Lomjaria said in a statement released on October 25 that the human rights situation is “extremely difficult” in Georgia’s occupied regions.

Georgian ombudsperson’s statement comes three days after the video recordings featuring beating of prisoners, who were on hunger strike, by riot police allegedly in Tskhinvali prison went viral in social networks on October 22.

Reportedly, prisoners went on hunger strike after “the ministry of justice” of the occupied region decided to enact the Russian Federation’s laws in Tskhinvali prison. The Russian laws that significantly tighten the rules applying to prisoners, among others, limiting their walk time and frequency, as well as the amount of parcels prisoners can get.

Nino Lomjaria said that “detention of citizens on the line of Russian occupation, beating of prisoners, ill-treatment and torture in temporary detention facilities or prisons remains one of the most problematic issues for years.” She recalled the death of Georgian citizen Archil Tatunashvili as a result of “alleged torture and ill-treatment.”

“It is vitally important international human rights organizations to be  provided an opportunity to monitor and study the cases of human rights violations in conflict regions,” the Georgian Public Defender said.

Speaking of the responsibility of the Russian Federation, as the country exercising effective control over the Tskhinvali region, Georgian ombudsperson noted that international law obliges Russia to ensure human rights protection in the occupied regions.

The Public Defender called on the Georgian government to spare no efforts in order to conduct, through close cooperation with international human rights and observation organizations, “effective investigation into the case and punish the perpetrators.”

Nino Lomjaria also urged the government to intensify negotiations on the issue of allowing international human rights organizations in the occupied regions.

Two NATO Ships Make Port Call in Batumi

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 14:58

On October 25, two NATO ships, assigned to the Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 2 (SNMCMG2), arrived on a port call in Batumi on Georgia’s Black Sea coast.

The maritime group, which includes the Italian flagship ITS Vesuvio and Turkish minehunter TCG Amasra, is led by Alessandro Falcone, Commander of NATO’s SNMCMG2.

Calling Georgia “one of the oldest and most important regional partners for NATO,” Commander Falcone said that during their stay, the SNMCMG2 crews will operate with the Georgian Coast Guard “to strengthen their maritime defense capabilities,” and “to enhance interoperability with NATO forces.”

According to Commander Falcone they will conduct a three-day exercise at sea, as well as different thematic workshops, which among others would include communication – “a big part of the necessary tools to achieve interoperability with the NATO forces.”

SNMCMG2 is a part of the Allied Maritime Command (MARCOM), the central command of all NATO maritime forces answerable directly to NATO’s Allied Command Operations (ACO) in Mons, Belgium.

It is one of four standing NATO groups which are multinational, integrated maritime forces made up of vessels from Allied countries. The vessels are under continuous NATO command to perform a wide range of tasks ranging from deterrent presence and situational awareness to exercises and the conduct of operational missions.

This is the SNMCMG2’s fifth visit to Georgia: three vessels made a port call in Batumi in 2013, four in 2016, four in 2017, and five in 2018.

According to MARCOM, NATO ships arrived in the Black Sea on October 21 “on a routine patrol deployment to enhance interoperability and cooperation with Allies and NATO partners on the Black Sea coast.”

It also reported that during the group’s patrol in the Black Sea, SNMCMG2 plans to conduct a port visit to NATO partners Odessa (Ukraine) and Batumi (Georgia) in addition to allied ports of Constanța (Romania) and Trabzon (Turkey).

“Ukraine and Georgia are highly valued partners to NATO, contributing to NATO operations and regularly exercising together in a demonstration of their strong commitment to international security,” MARCOM’s Public Affairs Office stated.

Ahead of the NATO vessels’ port call, the USS Porter, one of the guided-missile destroyers of the United States Navy, was also visiting Batumi.

Head of Regional Government of Adjara Tornike Rizhvadze noted that “the regular port calls” from Georgia’s partners to the Black Sea “is a precondition for [ensuring] safe, peaceful region.”

The Georgian Coast Guard’s press office told Civil.ge that the NATO ships might stay in Batumi until the end of the month.

Read also:

James Appathurai: ‘There will be More NATO in Georgia’

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 13:59
James AppathuraiThe Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs and Security Policy and NATO Secretary General’s Special Representative for the Caucasus and Central Asia.

“Change may not come overnight, but we have seen what can happen in a generation.” Those were the words of Rose Gottemoeller, NATO Deputy Secretary General (2016 – October 2019), when she spoke with students at Batumi Shota Rustaveli University, earlier this month. The occasion was the visit of the North Atlantic Council (NAC), NATO’s principal political decision-making body, to Georgia. This was the NAC’s fifth visit to Georgia since 2008.

Speaking with the young generation of Georgians, Ms. Gottemoeller stressed that continuing the pace of reform, and realising Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic ambitions, will be a societal and a generational challenge for this country. A process which requires hard work and patience but which, at the same time, offers many opportunities.

Georgia has certainly made good use of those opportunities in the past years. Everyone who has been in the country 10-15 years ago and returns again today can see with their own eyes the transformation that has taken place here, through the hard work of the Georgian people, with dedicated support of its Western allies. It is important that these domestic reforms continue, including to bring Georgia forward on its path to Euro-Atlantic integration. Effective and accountable democratic institutions are a pillar of the country’s security. Therefore, this is important not only for Georgia but also for NATO, including because our partners’ stability and security benefits our own security. One of the best ways for Georgia to protect its territorial integrity and sovereignty is by modernizing, strengthening, the Georgian Defence Forces and that is exactly what NATO is helping to do.

Georgia is indeed a unique partner for NATO and our close cooperation has increased substantially in recent years. Considerable progress has been made, both in democratic reforms and economic development, as well as in more effective defence institutions, and modernised defence forces. Georgia has proven its ability to contribute to our collective Euro-Atlantic security, as one of the largest troop contributors to NATO’s mission in Afghanistan, a steadfast support which we deeply appreciate.

Earlier this year, Georgia’s interoperability with Allied and partnered forces was put to the test, when 350 personnel from 24 NATO allies and partners exercised together just outside Tbilisi at the Joint Training and Evaluation Center (JTEC). The success of this exercise was a clear demonstration of Georgia’s command and control capabilities.

Georgia has achieved a lot, and the bulk of these achievements in the security and defence sector has taken place under the umbrella of the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package (SNGP). The SNGP is the cornerstone of NATO’s support to the reform of Georgia and its preparation for membership. This year, we celebrate 5 years of the SNGP and during the visit of the North Atlantic Council in October, Allies agreed to enhance the package. Under the SNGP umbrella, up to 40 experts from NATO Allies and partners are on the ground in Georgia every day, providing advice on everything from cyber threats to air defence and training your special forces, just to name a few examples. A central element of SNGP is the Joint Training and Evaluation Center (JTEC), where thousands of Georgian and NATO military staff have been trained in the past three years since it was established. JTEC is a success story, a tangible achievement in the dynamic partnership between NATO and Georgia.

The decision by the North Atlantic Council in Batumi this month to refresh the SNGP is a clear demonstration of NATO’s ongoing commitment to Georgia. It is a sign that Allies are united in their support, and a recognition that NATO’s relationship with Georgia continues to make progress.

Cooperation on maritime security is another example of the growing NATO-Georgia partnership. This includes training of Georgia’s Coast Guard and the sharing of situational awareness in the Black Sea. This October, one of NATO’s standing naval maritime immediate reaction forces will be visiting Georgia and conducting a naval exercise with the Coast Guard, for the second time this year. Since the 2014 illegal annexation of Crimea, the situation in the Black Sea has become increasingly tense. NATO, with three Allies who are littoral countries and two of our closest partners, Georgia and Ukraine, also bordering it, all have a shared interest to make sure that the Black Sea remains stable, where navigation takes place freely and according to international law.

So, Georgia’s relations with NATO will continue to increase in depth and breadth, as Georgia continues on its path toward Euro-Atlantic integration.

Georgia already has all the practical and political tools needed to prepare for joining NATO, when the moment is right. We encourage you to continue making full use of all the opportunities at hand for reform, which will help Georgia move closer to the Alliance. There will continue to be more NATO in Georgia, and, we hope, more Georgia in NATO.

EUMM Monitors ‘Briefly’ Detained in Chorchana-Tsnelisi Area

Thu, 10/24/2019 - 22:44

The European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) reported today that on the afternoon of October 24, its patrol “was briefly held by armed South Ossetian security actors, while conducting a patrol in the Chorchana-Tsnelisi area.”

It also added that the hotline was activated from Tskhinvali shortly after these developments.

“The Mission is still looking into the details concerning the incident, which happened in an area understood to be on Tbilisi-Administered Territory in accordance with the traditional interpretation of the Administrative Boundary Line in that area,” EUMM reported.

The Mission also noted that following recent security developments, EUMM “has significantly increased its patrolling to support stability” in the above area.

Earlier today, EUMM Head Erik Høeg also tweeted that “today EU member states gave final approval to increase number of EUMM monitors.”

“Reinforcement will allow EUMM to increase our monitoring at South Ossetian ABL, including in the Chorchana-Tsnelisi area where we are present 24/7,” he stated.

EUMM “is deeply concerned” about cases in which armed security actors prevent its monitors “from conducting their daily activities in accordance with the mandate.”

According to EUMM, the incident will be discussed during the Incident Prevention and Response Mechanism (IPRM) technical meeting in Ergneti tomorrow.

The Georgian government constructed a police checkpoint at the edge of the occupation line, between the villages of Chorchana of Khashuri Municipality and Tsnelisi in late August.

Protesting the construction of the checkpoint, Tskhinvali representatives disrupted the Incident Prevention and Response Mechanism (IPRM) meeting in the village of Ergneti on August 29, demanding Tbilisi to remove the checkpoint.

The situation was defused somewhat, as the decision was reached to hold the “technical meeting.” However, the parties failed to reach a consensus anyway.

In a tit-for-tat move Tskhinvali announced on September 5 that “border service” crew has started works to “mark the border” in the disputed Chorchana-Tsnelisi area, by placing “border signs” and their flag on Tbilisi-controlled territory west of Tsnelisi village on height 944.8m.

Representatives of Tbilisi, Moscow and Tskhinvali continue discussing the issue of disputable posts during technical meetings. However, on the recent 5th meeting on October 1, the sides failed again to reach any agreement.

Former Owners of Rustavi 2 TV Urge ECHR to Revise Its Ruling

Thu, 10/24/2019 - 19:30

The Georgian Justice Ministry reported on October 24 that former owners of Rustavi 2 TV, brothers Giorgi and Levan Karamanishvili, who owned the TV channel in 2012-2019, applied to the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights to revise the court’s ruling adopted on July 18, 2019.

In its judgement of July 18, the seven-member Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) declared that there has been no breach in fair trial guarantees in Rustavi 2 ownership dispute.

Following the ECHR ruling, the Georgian government enforced the ruling of the Georgian Supreme Court, according to which Rustavi 2 TV was seized from brothers Karamanishvili and handed over to businessman Kibar Khalvashi.

In today’s statement, the Justice Ministry cited the letter sent by the Strasbourg-based court as saying that the claimant’s lawsuit will be considered by the chamber of five judges. The Ministry also noted that only afterwards it will be clear whether the Grand Chamber of the European Court finds the lawsuit admissible.

The Ministry added that there is no need to submit any additional arguments or claims so far.

For more background, follow our tag on Rustavi 2

President Zurabishvili Concludes Japan Visit

Thu, 10/24/2019 - 19:07

Georgian President Salome Zurabishvili paid a working visit to Japan on October 20-24.

Summing up her visit today, Zurabishvili said by attending the enthronement of Emperor Naruhito earlier this week, she expressed Georgia’s respect “to this ancient country.”

“In Japan I represented Georgian people and my visit aimed to establish as much contacts with representatives of the host country as possible, to contribute to developing and strengthening ties between the two countries, and to raise awareness on Georgia,” President Zurabishvili stated.

Today, centuries of traditions are kept in the enthronement of Emperor #Naruhito. I sincerely hope for his long and prosperous reign as the #Reiwa era ushers in a period of beautiful harmony for the people of #Japan.

Georgia Extradites Murder Suspect to Russia

Thu, 10/24/2019 - 18:48

On October 24, Georgia extradited Russian citizen Yaroslav Sumbayev, 28, who has been accused by Moscow of cybercrime and murder, to the Russian Federation. 

Georgian law enforcers arrested Sumbayev in November 2018, prompting Russia to demand his extradition.

Although his defense lawyers claimed that Sumbayev will be subject to torture and inhuman treatment once being extradited to Russia, in May 2019, Tbilisi City Court found his extradition admissible. The upper instance courts upheld the ruling.    

Sumbayev’s defense lawyers criticized Justice Minister Tea Tsulukiani for depriving them of the right to challenge the ruling on “illegal” extradition.

They also claimed that Tsulukiani did not wait for consideration of Sumbayev’s case by the European Court of Human Rights and made a decision “in an accelerated manner,” thus violating Georgian legislation and international obligations.

“This fact is alarming and it should become the basis not only for raising Tea Tsulukiani’s official or political responsibility, but it is a criminal responsibility and what she did is called abuse of power,” Sumbayev’s defense lawyer, Ivane Norakidze told journalists.

Responding to Sumbayev’s defense lawyers, Minister Tsulukiani said at a news briefing on October 24 that she made a decision on Sumbayev’s extradition to Russia on September 30, after Georgian law enforcers found his extradition admissible.

Tsulukiani accused Sumbayev’s defense lawyers of telling the lies and presented a letter sent by ECHR to Soso Baratashvili, one of Sumbayev’s defense lawyers, according to which, as the Justice Minister noted, “the European Court does not think that Sumbayev may be subject to inhuman treatment once being extradited to the Russian Federation.”

“Georgia is not a shelter for potential criminals, no matter which country they are from (including Russia). Georgia may shelter only those persons, who really need a shelter, but it cannot be an oasis for people to get rid of justice in their own countries,” Tsulukiani told reporters.

Commenting on Tsulukiani’s remarks, Ivane Norakidze accused the Justice Minister of lying. He explained that following the September 6 letter from the ECHR, on October 15, the defense lawyers received another letter from the European Court of Human Rights, reading that it did not suspend Sumbayev’s extradition, but launched consideration of the case and will adopt a ruling on extradition in the near future.   

Norakidze added that although the Justice Minister was well aware of October 15 letter, she still referred to the previous one, which “is not in force any longer.”

Georgian opposition and civil rights activists are against Sumbayev’s extradition to Russia, citing possibility of torture and inhuman treatment against him in Russia as an argument. On October 18, civil rights activists held a protest rally outside the Justice Ministry demanding not to hand over Sumbayev to Russia.    

On September 19, Georgia extradited an ethnic Chechen citizen of the Russian Federation to Russia. Ramzan Akhiadov was put on Interpol’s wanted list on charges of terrorism, including cooperation with the Islamic State.

Read also:

Georgia Extradites Terror Suspect to Russia, Triggering Criticism

Tbilisi, Sokhumi Set up Commissions to Search for Missing People

Thu, 10/24/2019 - 17:33

At today’s session, the Georgian government approved a provision on setting up an interagency commission to search for and rebury people who have been missing since the 1992-1993 war in Abkhazia and the 2008 Russo-Georgia war.

The commission will increase the efficiency of the program on searching for and reburying the missing people, boost more coordination between the involved agencies and ensure centralized database.

Minister for Reconciliation and Civic Equality, Ketevan Tsikhelashvili, who will lead the commission, said that about 2,500 persons are considered missing since the 1992-1993 war in Abkhazia and the 2008 Russo-Georgian war.

“Two humanitarian platforms have been functioning since 2010, under the aegis of the Red Cross: bilateral – Georgian-Abkhazian and trilateral – Georgian-Russian-South Ossetian mechanisms. 187 graves were opened in frames of these mechanisms. 178 persons have been recovered and identified and their remains have been handed over to their families,” Minister Tsikhelashvili noted.

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reported in March 2019 that since 2013, remains of up to 500 persons have been recovered, out of which close to 200 have been identified and handed over to their families.

Minister Tsikhelashvili also said that the government has an obligation to intensify its efforts to search for the remaining 2,300 missing persons.

“The purpose of the commission is to carry out an intensive and coordinated work, especially as the Red Cross project has been prolonged till the end of 2021 and we want to use this period as much as possible,” Tsikhelashvili added.

The interagency commission on searching for and reburying the missing has also been created in Sokhumi. At its October 23 session “the government” of occupied Abkhazia approved a provision, according to which the region’s “foreign ministry” will lead the commission.

The commission will be in charge of obtaining and analyzing information about the persons missing as a result of the 1992-1993 conflict in Abkhazia, as well as identifying graves and organizing the recovery of remains.    

Read also: 

Red Cross Identifies Remains of 23 Abkhazia, Russo-Georgian War Victims

Central Bank Increases Key Rate to 8.5%

Wed, 10/23/2019 - 16:57

The Monetary Policy Committee of the National Bank of Georgia (NBG) decided at its meeting on October 23 to raise its key refinancing rate by 1 percentage point to 8.5%.

The National Bank of Georgia started tightening its monetary policy from September 4, pushing the key refinancing rate first from 6.5% to 7% and later to 7.5%.

The bank then explained that the decision was driven by “inflationary pressure” from the GEL exchange rate depreciation, and noted that the Monetary Policy Committee “stands ready to further continue policy tightening until the pressures from exchange rate recede.”

Following today’s session the NBG said that in September annual inflation was above the target of 6.4% that, along with temporary factors, has been driven by the pressure of nominal effective exchange rate depreciation on inflation.

The NBG forecasts that inflation will be above the target this year and will be maintained close to the target in a mid-term period, starting to decrease from March 2020.

It also noted that the committee’s future decisions will depend on how quickly the pressure from exchange rate on inflation is removed.

“The NBG will continue to monitor the developments in the economy and financial markets and will use all means and instruments at its disposal to ensure the price stability,” the bank said in its statement, adding that the Monetary Policy Committee will hold its next meeting on December 11, 2019.

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U.S. House Passes Bipartisan Georgia Support Act

Wed, 10/23/2019 - 13:21

On October 22, the United States House of Representatives has passed a bipartisan Georgia Support Act, a bill “to support the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Georgia, and for other purposes.”

The bill, initially introduced in the House in January, 2019 by the co-chairs of the Congressional Georgia Caucus Gerald Connolly (Dem.) and Adam Kinzinger (Rep.), is co-sponsored by a bipartisan group of 30 lawmakers.

Outlining the U.S. policy towards the country, Georgia Support Act reads that the U.S., among others, supports “continued development of democratic values in Georgia, including free and fair elections, public sector transparency and accountability, the rule of law, and anticorruption efforts.”

It also supports Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic and European integration, as well as “the right of the people of Georgia to freely determine their future and make independent and sovereign choices on foreign and security policy, including regarding their country’s relationship with other nations and international organizations, without interference, intimidation, or coercion by other countries.”

Supporting Georgia’s sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders, the bill condemns “ongoing detentions, kidnappings, and other human rights violations committed in the Georgian regions of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia forcibly occupied by the Russian Federation, including the recent killings of Georgian citizens Archil Tatunashvili, Giga Otkhozoria, and Davit Basharuli.”

The Georgia Support Act also calls for peaceful conflict resolution in Georgia, “including by urging” the Russian Federation to fully implement the European Union-mediated ceasefire agreement of August 12, 2008, and supporting the establishment of international security mechanisms in Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia as well as “the safe and dignified return of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees, all of which are important for lasting peace and security on the ground.”

In its assistance provisions, the bipartisan bill refers to a wide area of the U.S.-Georgia relations, including security and cybersecurity.

In particular, the Act requests from the Secretary of State and other relevant bodies to submit to the House and the Senate a report reviewing U.S. security assistance to Georgia, that among others includes “an assessment of Georgia’s capabilities to defend itself, including a five-year strategy to enhance Georgia’s deterrence, resilience, and self-defense capabilities.”

It also aims to “enhance the capabilities of Georgia to combat Russian disinformation and propaganda campaigns intended to undermine the sovereignty and democratic institutions of Georgia, while promoting the freedom of the press.”

According to the bill, the U.S. Trade Representative “should make progress toward negotiations with Georgia to enter a bilateral free trade agreement” as well.

In its sanctions provisions, the Georgia Support Act envisages the U.S. President to impose sanctions on a foreign person, “based on credible information, that such foreign person, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act is responsible for, complicit in, or responsible for ordering, controlling, or otherwise directing the commission of serious human rights abuses” in Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia.

Georgia response

Georgian officials have welcomed passing the bipartisan bill. Prime Minister Giogri Gakharia wrote on his official Twitter account late last night that the Georgia Support Act “represents the first standalone legislation related to Georgia dedicated to taking our partnership to the next level.”

He then noted that the Georgia Support Act “significantly strengthens defense, economic, and cyber security ties between Georgia and the U.S. “Closer partnership with the U.S. will help create more jobs, build a strong middle class, and maintain sustainable security in Georgia,” PM Gakharia added.

The Georgia Support Act's passage by the House of Representatives underscores the strong bipartisan support for #Georgia in the #US. Our partnership is based on our shared common values of freedom and democracy.

— Giorgi Gakharia (@GakhariaGiorgi) October 23, 2019

Georgian Foreign Minister Davit Zalkaliani also tweeted that “with Georgia Support Act, the U.S. Congress demonstrated it’s clear bipartisan support to strengthen strategic partnership.” “We are determined to work with the main strategic partner to advance U.S.-Georgia relations to higher level in all fields,” FM Zalkaliani stated.

According to President Salome Zurabishvili, the passing of the Georgia Support Act “is a historic reminder” that the U.S. is “one of Georgia’s closest allies and most reliable partner.” 

As the House of Representatives has passed the bill, the Georgia Support Act will now be introduced in the Senate as well. If passed by the Senate, the Act will require the U.S. President Donald Trump’s signature to enter into force.

Read also:

U.S. Navy Ship Makes Port Call in Batumi

Tue, 10/22/2019 - 15:25

The USS Porter (DDG 78), one of the guided-missile destroyers of the United States Navy, is making a port call in Batumi on Georgia’s Black Sea coast on October 22.

According to the U.S. Embassy in Georgia, this visit “serves to highlight the continued cooperation between the U.S. and Georgia by promoting regional peace and stability.”

The embassy noted that the port call “also provides American sailors an opportunity to explore local historical sites and build lasting partnerships with their Georgian Coast Guard counterparts.”

Accompanied by a crew of 39 officers and 282 enlisted personnel, Commander of the ship Craig M. Trent said the visit is a symbol of U.S.-Georgia friendship, and that USS Porter will stay in Batumi for a few more days.

This is the USS Porter’s second visit to Georgia after 2015. The U.S. Navy routinely operates ships in the Black Sea consistent with the Montreux Convention and International Law.

PM Gakharia Addresses Tbilisi Silk Road Forum

Tue, 10/22/2019 - 14:08

Georgian Prime Minister Giorgi Gakharia opened the two-day biennial Tbilisi Silk Road Forum in the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi today.  In his opening remarks PM Gakharia emphasized that thanks to its strategic location between Europe and Asia, “Georgia has a huge potential to become a hub, and as it did it historically, to continue fulfilling an important role in assisting trade between the east and the west.”

“We consider and perceive Georgia as a gate to access not only the Caucasus, but Central Asian, then European and larger western and eastern markets,” Gakharia stated. In this context, the Georgian Prime Minister  underlined that Georgia benefits from the free trade agreements with the European Union, China, CIS, Turkey and Ukraine, adding that negotiations to seal free trade deals with India and Israel are also underway. 

PM Gakharia also spoke of how Georgia’s “lesser administrative and logistic barriers and transport benefits, simplified and harmonized trade procedures, support strengthening trade among the countries.” He then noted that the country carries out “one of the most liberal” trade policies in the world.

Held in the Georgian capital of Tbilisi on October 22-23, the third iteration of Tbilisi Silk Road Forum brings together over 2,000 delegates from more than 60 countries around the world. Georgian PM noted that Tbilisi Silk Road Forum is an effective platform for the Chinese belt and road initiative member states, international organizations and private sector representatives to discuss the economic challenges in the region and find solutions, as well as to share experience.

Among the participants of the forum are Deputy Prime Minister of Armenia; Minister of Transport, Communications and High Technologies of Azerbaijan; Minister of Transport, Information Technology and Communications of Bulgaria; First Deputy Minister, Ministry of Transport of Tajikistan; Minister of Transport and Infrastructure of Turkey; Minister of Infrastructure of Ukraine; Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan

Read also: 

PM Speaks of Georgia’s Transit Role at Silk Road Forum

New Head of Energy Regulatory Commission Elected

Mon, 10/21/2019 - 18:41

On October 21, the Georgian National Energy and Water Supply Regulatory Commission (GNERC) elected Davit Narmania, one of the members of the commission, as its chairman for a term of three years. All four members of the commission supported Narmania’s nomination.

The Parliament of Georgia elected Narmania as the member of GNERC in 2017, for a term of six years. Prior to that appointment, he served as Tbilisi Mayor in 2014-2017 and earlier in 2012-2014 as the Minister for Regional Development and Infrastructure.

The GNERC chairman was elected under new rules. Last week, the Parliament of Georgia made amendments to the Law on Electrical Energy and Natural Gas, regulating the rule of GNERC formation, and entrusted its members to elect the new chairman. According to previous regulations, the GNERC chairman was elected by the Parliament for a term of six years upon the President’s nomination.

The need for adopting a new rule emerged after lawmakers found out in the process of considering Narmania’s nominee earlier this month that the norm envisaging the nomination of GNERC chair by the President to the Parliament contradicted the new wording of the Georgian constitution, according to which the President was authorized to nominate only commission membership candidates.

To eradicate a legal shortcoming, lawmakers approved amendments in an accelerated manner.

Davit Narmania will take office on October 22 after GNERC approves the results of voting.

GNERC is an independent regulatory body, which regulates the terms of power supplies, natural gas transportation and distribution, water supplies, including service fees. The commission consists of five members, who are elected by the Parliament for a term of six years, upon the President’s nomination.

The term of office of previous chair, Irina Milorava expired on September 17, 2019.

Court Launches Consideration of New Dispute on Rustavi 2 TV Case

Mon, 10/21/2019 - 17:19

The Tbilisi City Court has launched consideration of the lawsuit filed by Davit Dvali and Jarji Akimidze, co-founders of Rustavi 2 TV and the channel’s co-owners in 1994-2004, against the TV channel’s present owner, Kibar Khalvashi, demanding 60% of shares in the television.

According to Kakha Kozhoridze, defense lawyer of Dvali and Akimidze, the court accepted their motion and imposed freeze on 60% of Khalvashi’s shares.

Davit Dvali and Jarji Akimidze announced about launching a legal dispute to regain their shares in the TV channel on October 17th. They claimed that as a result of “an organized attack” orchestrated by top officials in 2004, they were forced to give up 60% of their shares to another person, identified as Paata Karsanidze. Karsanidze then subsequently transferred his shares to Kibar Khalvashi.

“We have no illusion that this process will be short and simple. We know that it will be a long and difficult road for us, but we hope that we will pass it successfully,” Jarji Akimidze told reporters on October 21.

Paata Salia, new director general of Rustavi 2 TV, said that the defendant will take legal steps only after receiving relevant documents from the court.

Background

According to various sources, within the period of 2004-2012 Rustavi 2 TV station changed hands almost 20 times. In late 2012, the company became owned by businessmen – brothers Gia and Levan Karamanishvili. After Georgian Dream came to power following the 2012 parliamentary elections, Rustavi 2 TV’s editorial policy became critical towards the new government.

Kibar Khalvashi, who co-owned Rustavi 2 TV in 2004-2006, launched a dispute over ownership of the station in 2015. In 2017, the Supreme Court of Georgia ruled that Kibar Khalvashi was the owner of 100% of shares of the TV channel. The European Court of Human Rights, whom the Karamanishvili brothers appealed to, suspended the enforcement of the ruling.

Brothers Karamanishvili tried to prove in Strasbourg that Georgian judges were biased which violated their right to a fair trial guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights.

In its judgement of July 18, 2019, the seven-member Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) declared there had been no breach in fair trial guarantees in the case of the dispute surrounding the ownership of Rustavi 2. The Court also ruled “to discontinue” suspension of the enforcement of the Supreme Court’s decision of March 2017, which granted ownership rights of Rustavi 2 TV, to its former co-owner Kibar Khalvashi

Shortly after the court ruling Khalvashi was registered as the new owner of the TV company, appointing Paata Salia the television’s new director general.

Davit Dvali and Jarji Akimidze, co-founders of Rustavi 2 TV, said back in August that they would not accept 40% of shares in Georgia’s most-watched television broadcaster which Khalvashi had offered them. The latter had earlier promised 50% of shares in the station to the co-founders as well as appointment of Dvali to the position of director general in case of positive resolution of the dispute over Rustavi 2 TV launched in 2015. However, after winning the legal dispute and regaining control over the TV channel, Khalvashi failed to keep his promise.

For more background, follow our tag on Rustavi 2.